What is voltage hyper? This question is frequently asked by many people who intend to know more about lithium-ion batteries. So, this article is designed to help you understand exactly the battery voltage and what is voltage hyper in a battery. You are going to understand the following concepts clearly:
- What is voltage hyper, and what is voltage in lithium batteries?
- What is the suitable voltage for a lithium-ion battery?
- How to measure voltage?
- The comparison and differences between battery voltage hyper vs low voltage.
You will also learn about the effect of connecting a device to a battery that produces the wrong voltage.
1. What is voltage for battery? What is voltage hyper in batteries?
Battery voltage is an essential factor that you need to consider before using any battery. A simple term that can be used to define voltage in batteries is the electrical potential a battery can hold. The battery electric potential means the difference in charge between two points - the cathode and anode in a battery.The greater the electrical potential difference, the greater the voltage. The voltage in batteries is measured in volts. What is voltage hyper in lithium ion batteries?
In other words, voltage hyper in batteries can be defined as overvoltage. Battery overvoltage refers to the extra potential required to discharge ions on the electrodes beyond the equilibrium potential of the electrodes, or to the voltage that exceeds the normal operating voltage of a device or circuit. That explains well what is voltage hyper. The voltage hyper may be caused by faulty battery, shorted battery, or mismatched charger. Voltage hyper can also result from incorrect system design from the battery's manufacturer.
2. Introduction to voltage-related terms
● Nominal voltage
Nominal voltage is the standard voltage used to refer to battery cells. However, it is essential to note that the actual voltage of a battery's cell can differ from its nominal voltage. Consider the following example: A ternary lithium-ion battery has a nominal voltage of 3.7V. On the other hand, its actual voltage when charged is 4.2V and 2.8V when discharged.
● Rated voltage
A battery's rated voltage is the maximum voltage you can use to operate a device safely. For example, the rated voltage of lithium iron phosphate battery is 3.2V. Attempting to operate a device using a higher voltage battery than the specified one can damage it. Using a device with the correct rated voltage batteries would be best. It'll help avoid over voltage consequences.
● Over voltage
Over voltage in batteries is simply the excess amount of voltage from the required standard operating voltage in a circuit. Over voltage in batteries causes devices connected in a circuit to either damage or even stop working. For example, when you attempt to power a ship that needs 24 volts marine battery using a 36 volts lithium battery, the ship may fail to switch on.
● Charge/Discharge cutoff voltage
Most lithium-ion batteries have a cutoff technology that prevents the battery from overcharging or over-discharging. As such, charge/discharge cutoff voltage means that the battery has a cutoff power supply or power input. A perfect example is how your smartphone switches off after you’ve depleted its charge to prevent damage. The charge/discharge cutoff voltage is different for each battery, which largely depends on the type and use of the battery. In addition, the battery's charge/discharge cutoff voltage can also be determined by the manufacturer, allowing consumers to reach the battery's maximum capacity.
● Open circuit voltage
Open circuit voltage is the electrical potential (or voltage) between the battery's cathode and anode terminals without connecting any load. Open circuit voltage is essential when you want to know your battery's electrical potential capability. The main factors that affect the open circuit voltage are the properties of cathode and anode systems of the battery, the nature of the materials, the composition and concentration of the solution, the temperature, the state of the electrode boundary, etc. If the materials of the cathode and anode of the battery are exactly the same, then no matter how big the battery is and how the geometry changes, its open circuit voltage will be the same.
3. Chemical reactions behind the battery voltage
All battery packs are made up of electrochemical cells. Each electrochemical cell has two electrodes, where oxidation of a metal electrode occurs in one electrode called anode. In contrast, the reduction of metal ions takes place in the other electrode called cathode. These two reactions affect a battery’s voltage by exchanging electrons between the electrochemical cells. When the battery loses electrons, the reaction is called oxidation. Oxidation makes the battery become positively charged.
When it gains electrons, the reaction is called reduction, which negatively charges the battery. It is important to note that reduction happens at the cathode and oxidation at the anode. Cell potential defines the battery's voltage - the difference between the cathode’s potential to become reduced and the anode’s potential to become oxidized. Hence, measuring the difference in cell potential gives you voltage.
4. What is good voltage for lithium-ion battery? What is voltage hyper for 18650 battery?
A good voltage for a lithium-ion battery should not exceed the manufacturer's stated maximum voltage. It should neither go below the stated minimum voltage. For example, suppose you have a ternary lithium-ion battery. In that case, the voltage should not be below 2.8V, and it should not exceed 4.2V. 18650 batteries are almost lithium-ion batteries in life.
Each 18650 battery can be rated between 3.2V - 4.2V, depending on the type and chemistry of the battery. 18650 lithium-ion batteries have a maximum recommended voltage of 4.2V. What is voltage hyper for 18650 battery? That is if the voltage of a 18650 battery above 4.2V, the voltage is hyper.
5. How to measure voltage
Voltage is measured using a multimeter. A multimeter is a multi-purpose electronic device that can measure a battery’s voltage (volts) and resistance (ohms). To measure voltage using a multimeter, ensure you set the device to read the correct measurements (v). Most multimeters will require you to select the voltage range, e.g., 1000V, 200V, 20V, 200mV, etc. Select a workable range to get the most accurate readings. Most of these devices have two ports - COM and VΩ.
Insert the black lead into the COM jack and the red lead into the VΩ jack. Place the sharp black probe on the negative side of the battery and the sharp red probe on the positive side of the battery. In addition, if the BMS inside the battery has intelligent functions, we can also directly understand the current voltage of the battery on the battery display or the app that comes with the battery. Some BMSs can even accurately measure the voltage of each cell in the battery pack, something we can't do with a multimeter.
6. How should I choose the correct volt charger for my lithium-ion battery?
When selecting the correct volt charger for your lithium-ion battery, there are four primary factors that you’ll need to consider:
- Input voltage
- Output voltage
- Ah rating
- How fast the charger cools down
The input voltage shouldn't exceed the charger's recommended voltage. The output voltage needs to be compatible with the battery, and the Ah rating should not be lesser than the battery's Ah rating. A fast cooling charger is an added advantage as it prevents overheating. For example, if you are using Li-Ion batteries, each battery needs to be charged to 4.2V. If you are using a device with three lithium-ion batteries connected in series, you need a lithium-ion charger with an output voltage of 4.2V × 3.
7. What happens if a device is connected to the wrong voltage?
Connecting a device to the wrong voltage will damage or significantly reduce its service life. Other devices, e.g., laptops, may even fail to start up because the motherboard detects overvoltage. If the device runs, it might overheat, damaging or reducing its service life. Consider connecting your devices to the correct voltage.
8. Battery voltage hyper vs low voltage - difference and comparison
There is one primary difference between voltage hyper vs low voltage. Voltage hyper is the voltage that exceeds the recommended voltage that’s what is voltage hyper in a battery. If a battery has voltage hyper, the electronics connected can easily get damaged. On the other hand, low voltage (also known as under-voltage) happens when a battery's voltage goes way below the recommended voltage. It causes overloading, and devices connected to a battery with low voltage, e.g.,power tool,may not work.
They'll additionally have an inefficient performance. For example, if you install 12v battery in the power tool needed 24v battery, it will cause low voltage and it may not work. The main similarity between voltage hyper and low voltage is that they negatively affect devices. Therefore, getting a battery with a voltage within the recommended range would be best.
9. What is the effect of high open circuit voltage of lithium battery on battery performance?
High open circuit voltage is a positive thing with regard to lithium battery performance. It indicates that the battery is healthy. A healthy battery can power devices effectively and efficiently.
Voltage is defined as a battery’s electrical potential. What is voltage hyper in batteries? That is the over voltage caused by using the wrong charger, charger failure, or manufacturer defects. We strongly recommend acquiring your lithium battery and its charger from a manufacturer with a proven track record. Doing so will help you avoid you battery hurt, especially when trying to avoid voltage hyper. In addition, charging your lithium battery with the correct charger and correct voltage will help it have a longer service life.