An overview of battery swapping station classification in EVs



The essence of the battery swap station is to give full play to the full life cycle value of the power battery to a greater extent and realize the redistribution of benefits. This article mainly talks about the battery swapping station classification.

1. Basic overview of battery swap stations

Electric vehicle battery swap station refers to the centralized storage, centralized charging, and unified distribution of a large number of batteries through centralized charging stations, and battery replacement services are carried out in battery distribution stations.

Or it integrates battery charging, logistics allocation, and battery replacement services. To put it simply, electric vehicles do not need to be charged but directly by replacing the battery to meet the range, which separates the car from the 12 volt 200ah lithium battery for energy replenishment, which is called a battery swap station.

2. Common battery swapping station classification

The function of the battery swap station is also similar to that of a gas station, which is mainly installed in public areas and provides battery swapping services for one or more models of electric vehicles.

According to the different functions, the battery swap station has different service methods. The common battery swapping station classification includes: vertical chassis, side chassis, and sub-box battery swapping.

Automation forms include: manual, semi-automatic and fully automatic battery swapping. There are two types of battery packs: whole packs and separate boxes. The battery swap method is mainly used in commercial vehicles and private passenger cars.

Common battery swapping station classification

  • Chassis vertical way

Vertical plug-in battery swap. The battery pack is usually installed on the chassis of the vehicle, and the battery concealment is better and the safety is higher. However, it needs to be corrected, and the battery swapping station classification needs three degrees of freedom, and the Tesla and NIO battery swap is relatively complex and costly.

  • Chassis side battery swap mode

Parallel plug-in battery swap. The battery is fixed in the form of a frame, the battery is securely installed, and the electrical connection is reliable. The protection of the battery depends on the protection of the chassis of the whole vehicle, and the sealing is not easy to guarantee.

It needs to be manually aligned, and the operation process is difficult to form a standard, and the battery replacement time is long.

  • Binning method

End-face battery swap. There is no guide shaft hole, the stroke is short when changing the battery, and the joint area is dense. The corresponding vehicle reserves less space for battery swapping and battery installation.

It mainly relies on the joint surface of the plug-in of the battery car and the body of the plug-in for alignment, and the plug-in itself has a high manufacturing accuracy, the plug-in is more complex, and the cost is higher.

3. What are the battery swap station systems

The battery swap station mainly includes positioning system, battery swap system, operation and maintenance system, safety system and logistics system.

Among them, the battery swap system is the core of the battery swap station. The structure of the battery swap station can be divided into four parts: battery swap system, charging system, battery swap platform and control system.

What are the battery swap station systems

  • Battery swapping system

The function of the best battery swap station system is to remove the battery loss from the electric vehicle, transport it to the battery compartment, obtain the fully charged battery from the battery compartment, and transport it to the battery swapping platform to complete the battery swapping work.

  • Charging system

The main equipment of the charging system in the battery swap station is the charging compartment, which charges the replaced battery in the form of centralized charging and AC slow charging.

In the charging system, the battery box design technology has high requirements for environmental control, safety protection, locking and fast unlocking technology.

  • Battery swapping platform

The battery swapping platform includes a battery swapping container and a parking base for parking and positioning electric vehicles. Among the current solutions is to adopt a sinking electric vehicle positioning platform, which is a common method in battery swapping station classification.

However, there are problems such as troublesome design of civil structures, long deployment and construction times, the need for additional drainage measures, and the inability to relocate. The other is to lift the electric vehicle application jacking device.

Due to the existence of automobile suspension, certain requirements are put forward for the design of jacking device, and the battery swap mode also has high precision requirements for electric vehicle parking positioning. Once there is a deviation in the parking position and cannot be successfully located, it will lead to the failure of the follow-up battery replacement work.

  • Control system

The control system is responsible for communicating with the customer's equipment, as well as with the coordination equipment of the battery swapping station classification.

In simple terms, the control system receives a a battery swap request from a client device and selects one of several battery swapping platforms to perform the swap operation.

The control system is involved in the identification of electric vehicles. Known identification methods include on-board RFID identification, license plate recognition device recognition, and manual recognition.

4. Centralized and charging and swapping modes

The battery swap mode generally includes centralized charging mode and charging and swapping mode.

Centralized and charging and swapping modes

  • Centralized charging mode

A large number of batteries are centrally stored, charged, and distributed through centralized charging stations, and battery replacement services are provided for electric vehicles in battery distribution stations.

  • Charging and swapping mode

With the battery swap station as the carrier, the battery swap station has the functions of battery swap and battery charging at the same time. Including power supply system, charging system, battery replacement system, monitoring system, battery detection and maintenance management part, etc.

At present, most of the battery swap methods used in the market are battery swap vs charging station mode.

5. Advantages and disadvantages of battery swap mode

● Advantages

Fast energy replenishment: With the battery swap mode, it only takes 3-5 minutes to complete the process.

Savings: Power batteries account for a high cost of new energy vehicles, sold at the price of naked cars, and 12v 100ah lithium ion batteries are provided in the form of leasing, and the cost of buying a car will be significantly reduced.

Service life: The battery operating company will monitor, maintain and manage the battery in a centralized manner, which is conducive to prolonging the life of the power battery and improving the safety of the battery.

Advantages and disadvantages of battery swap mode


Reduce charging costs: Take advantage of the difference in peak-to-valley electricity prices to reduce charging costs.

Reduce the load on the grid: The battery swap mode can be used to absorb from the grid in a balanced manner during the trough phase of electricity consumption.

Reduce the cost of car purchases: store energy and relieve the pressure on urban electricity.

● Disadvantages

  • High upfront investment cost

In addition to the cost of land, manpower, and the purchase of battery swapping equipment, the construction of battery swap stations also requires huge battery reserve costs, battery charging and electricity costs.

  • High operating cost

The operation and maintenance of the battery swapping equipment in the battery swap station, the unified charging, storage and deployment of the power battery require a certain number of workers.

  • Differeent standards

The overall design of the battery swap model and the battery replacement form of each automobile manufacturer and battery manufacturer. Standards vary in battery size, interfaces, etc.

6. Conclusion

There are many battery swapping station classification, and this article introduces the battery swapping station classification and various modes of electric vehicles. The arrival of the battery swap mode greatly reduces the risk of the battery. With the construction of more and more battery swap stations, the battery swap mode will officially usher in an explosive period.


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