What is voltage regulator and how to choose it easily



Voltage stabilizer may not be very well understood by most friends, but it plays a great role in our homes, and it is a device that provides a stable output voltage according to the needs of electrical equipment.


It is also a power supply equipment that can automatically adjust the output voltage, so that the unstable power supply voltage with large fluctuations is stable within the corresponding range and various circuit electrical equipment can work stably under normal voltage.

1. Detailed introduction of the voltage stabilizer

A voltage stabilizer is a device in electronic engineering designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage. The stabilizer is a rectangular box made of metal, which consists of a voltage regulating circuit, a control circuit, and a servo motor.

It is mainly used to adjust the voltage, that is, the power supply voltage that fluctuates greatly and cannot meet the requirements of electrical equipment is controlled within its set value. Make each circuit or electrical equipment work normally at the rated working voltage. The main types of voltage stabilizers are switching stabilizers, linear stabilizers, etc.

2. The working principle of the voltage stabilizer

Since some electrical appliances contain coil components, eddy currents that hinder the current are generated at the beginning of power on, and the generation of eddy currents will weaken the instantaneous voltage when the appliance starts, resulting in slow start-up.

It will also strengthen the instantaneous voltage generated after the circuit breaks, which may cause sparks to damage the circuit. A voltage stabilizer is needed to protect the proper operation of the circuit. The voltage stabilizer is composed of a voltage regulation circuit, a control circuit, and a servo motor.

When the input voltage or load changes, the control circuit samples, compares, and amplifies. Then drive the servo motor to rotate to change the position of the carbon brush of the stabilizer. The output voltage is kept stable by automatically adjusting the coil turns ratio. Voltage stabilizers with large capacity also operate on the principle of voltage compensation.

3. What are the types of voltage stabilizer

The voltage stabilizer has a large AC stabilizer of tens to thousands of kilowatts, which is a working power supply for large-scale experiments and industrial and medical equipment. There are also small AC stabilizers ranging from a few watts to several kilowatts that provide high-quality power to small labs or home appliances of home energy storage.

What are the types of voltage regulator


Linear stabilizers are typically used in cost-sensitive, noise-sensitive, low-current, or space-constrained applications such as consumer electronics such as headphones, hearing aids, wearables, and IoT devices. Switching stabilizers are typically used in applications that require high efficiency and performance, such as consumer, industrial, enterprise, and automotive applications.

According to the different output properties of the stabilizer, the stabilizer is generally divided into two categories: AC stabilizer (AC regulated power supply) and DC stabilizer (DC regulated power supply).

According to the working state of the pass transistor, the regulated power supply is often divided into two categories: linear regulated power supply and switching regulated power supply. In addition, there is a small power supply that uses a stabilizer tube.

● Switching stabilizers

Switching stabilizers use an output stage that repeatedly switches the "on" and "off" states to generate an output voltage along with the energy storage components (capacitors and inductors). It is adjusted by adjusting the switching timing based on the feedback sample of the output voltage.

● Parametric stabilizers

An LDO is a linear stabilizer. A linear stabilizer uses a transistor or FET operating in its linear region to subtract excess voltage from the applied input voltage to produce a regulated output voltage.

4. How to use a voltage stabilizer safely

● Access to mains

  • The wire diameter of the input conductor connected to the device must be guaranteed to be ≥ 25mm2 copper core wire.
  • The input and output line dowels of the access device must be tightened.
  • The input and output lines must not be reversed.
  • The front end of the device cannot replace the air switch with a leakage protector.
How to use a voltage regulator safely

    ● Access payload

    • The load power cannot exceed the maximum power of the regulated power supply.
    • All line interfaces of the output line must be connected, otherwise the line heating will be caused by the large current, which will affect the effective power.
    • Turn on the regulated power supply (it is strictly forbidden to turn on the load first, then turn on the regulated power supply).
    • Please ensure that the regulated power supply is turned on when the computer monitor is turned off.
    • Measure the input voltage before turning it on, and the value should be between 304V and 456V.
    • Check that the output voltage meter that comes with the machine should be 380V.
    • Do not use excessive loads.
    • Use enough wires.
    • Please carefully connect the input voltage and the output of the instrument.
    • The output voltage of the instrument and the voltage stabilizer should be unified.
    • Please select the input voltage switch is the same as the supply voltage.
    • If the fuse burns out, check the loading device.
    • To use the same amount of fuse, do not use non-rated fuses or wires.
    • Install in a dry and ventilated place.

    5. The main role of the voltage stabilizer

    Voltage stabilizer is a power supply circuit or power supply device that can automatically adjust the output voltage. Its function is to stabilize the power supply voltage that fluctuates greatly and does not meet the requirements of electrical equipment within its set value range, so that various circuits or electrical equipment can work normally under the rated working voltage.

    The main role of the voltage regulator


    The original power stabilizer relied on the exhausted relay to stabilize the voltage. When the grid voltage fluctuates, the power stabilizer's automatic correction circuit is activated to operate the internal relay. Forcing the output voltage to remain close to the set value has the advantage of simplicity.

     The disadvantage is that the accuracy of voltage regulation is not high, and every time the relay jumps and shifts, it will cause a transient interruption of the power supply and generate spark interference. This greatly interferes with the reading and writing work of computer equipment, which is easy to cause error signals on the computer, and in severe cases, it will also damage the hard disk.

    High quality small voltage stabilizers, most of which use the motor to drag the carbon brush to stabilize the voltage. This type of stabilizer has little interference with electrical equipment, and the accuracy of voltage regulation is relatively high. The difference of voltage vs current indeed influences the operation.

    6. How to properly care for a voltage stabilizer to make it last longer

    The stabilizer should be placed in a ventilated, dry, no direct sunlight, no corrosive gas room. The power selected by the voltage stabilizer should be greater than the total power of the powered equipment. The stabilizer switch should not be used as the main switch of the equipment, and the stabilizer switch should be turned on first.

    After there is a power output, connect different electrical devices from small to large in turn, turn off from large to small when off, and finally turn off the voltage stabilizer switch. The stabilizer switch should not be turned on frequently, and the interval between each opening should be greater than 10 seconds. Otherwise, it is easy to cause false protection of the voltage stabilizer, or even damage and do harm to the connected energy storage devices like lithium battery.

    7. Key points and precautions for choosing a voltage stabilizer

    It is recommended that you choose a stabilizer that is at least three times more powerful than the actual power, because the stabilizer has to overcome the surge shock and the starting impact of inductive loads (such as refrigerators, air conditioners, motors and motors) in practice.

    Points and precautions for choosing a voltage regulator


    ● Reserve power capacity

    When the voltage stabilizer is used in the inductive load, because the inductive load has a large instantaneous starting current, it is generally about 3-5 times the rated current and often exceeds 9 times the operating current.

    Therefore, all voltage stabilizers with inductive loads such as motors and compressor appliances must consider their power reserves and leave a margin. Sufficient margin should be reserved to avoid immediate damage to the stabilizer by the inrush current generated when the load is turned on.

    ● Mind voltage value of the power supply

    Whether it exceeds the input voltage range specified by the selected voltage stabilizer, and whether the three-phase electrical voltage difference is more than 10V.

    ● Choose products with high brand awareness

    Because these manufacturers are reliable in quality and thoughtful in service. At the same time, whether the manufacturer has good after-sales service, such as product quality implementation of three guarantees, etc., is also an important factor that consumers should pay attention to.

    ● How to choose the right voltage stabilizer

    To select the right stabilizer, first understand key parameter requirements, such as system priorities such as efficiency, performance, cost, and other key functions such as good power indication or control.

    8. Conclusion

    Through the classification, parameter introduction, function, working principle and so on of the voltage stabilizer introduced above. I believe that everyone also has a certain understanding of voltage stabilizers. It is also suitable for users at the low voltage distribution end where the power supply voltage is too low or too high and the fluctuation range is large. Because it is widely used, the development prospects are also very impressive.


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