Solar power generation systems are mainly composed of photovoltaic components, controllers, inverters, batteries, distribution cabinets and other accessories. Depending on whether they rely on the public power grid, they are divided into off-grid and grid-connected systems. Off-grid systems operate independently and do not rely on the power grid.

The off-grid solar power system is equipped with a battery with energy storage function, which can ensure the stability of the system power and can supply power to the load when the solar power system does not generate electricity at night or the power generation is insufficient on rainy days.

Regardless of the form, the working principle is that components of solar power system convert light energy into direct current, and the direct current is converted into alternating current under the action of the inverter, ultimately realizing the functions of electricity consumption and internet access. So what are the components of solar power system? What are their functions? This article will give you the answer.


1. Photovoltaic modules

Photovoltaic modules are one of the core components of solar power system. They are composed of photovoltaic module sheets or photovoltaic modules of different specifications cut by laser cutting machines or steel wire cutting machines.

Since the current and voltage of a single photovoltaic cell are very small, it must be connected in series to obtain high voltage, and then connected in parallel to obtain high current, output through a diode (to prevent current return), and then packaged in a stainless steel, aluminum or other non-metallic frame, install the upper glass and back panel, fill with nitrogen, and seal.

Combining photovoltaic modules in series and parallel forms a square array of photovoltaic modules, also called a photovoltaic array.

Working principle:

Sunlight shines on the p-n junction of the semiconductor to form new hole-electron pairs. Under the action of the electric field of the p-n junction, holes flow from the p region to the n region, and electrons flow from the n region to the p region. After the circuit is connected, it will create an electric current. Its function is to convert solar energy into electrical energy and send it to the battery for storage such as 12v 200ah deep cycle battery or to promote the load to work.

Component types:

① Monocrystalline silicon: The photoelectric conversion rate of these components of solar power system is ≈18%, max can reach up to 24%. It has the highest conversion rate among all photovoltaic modules. It is generally encapsulated with tempered glass and waterproof resin, which makes it strong and durable. It has a service life of generally up to 25 years.


② Polycrystalline silicon: The photoelectric conversion rate is ≈14%, which is similar to the production process of monocrystalline silicon. The difference between polycrystalline silicon is that the photoelectric conversion rate is lower, the price is lower, and the service life is shorter. However, polycrystalline silicon materials are easy to manufacture, which can save power consumption, and have low production costs, so it has been developed vigorously.


③ Amorphous silicon: The photoelectric conversion rate is ≈10%. It is completely different from the production methods of monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon. It is a thin-film solar cell. The process is greatly simplified, and the silicon material consumption is very small, so the power consumption is lower. Its main advantage is that it can generate electricity even in low light conditions.


2. Controller (for use in off-grid systems)

The photovoltaic controller are components of solar power system that automaticly control device that can automatically prevent the battery from overcharging and over-discharging. Using a high-speed CPU microprocessor and a high-precision A/D analog-to-digital converter.

It is a microcomputer data collection and monitoring control system that can quickly collect the current working status of the solar power system in real time, obtain the working information of the PV station at any time, and provide accurate and sufficient basis for evaluating the rationality of solar power system design and testing the reliability of system component quality. It also has a serial communication data transmission function that can centralize and remote control multiple solar power system substations.

3. Inverter

Inverters are also one of the most important components of solar power system. An inverter is a device that converts DC power generated by solar power into AC power. The photovoltaic inverter is one of the important system balances in the photovoltaic array system and can be used with general AC power supply equipment. Solar inverters have special features that work with photovoltaic arrays, such as maximum power point tracking and islanding effect protection.

Solar inverters can be divided into the following three types:

  • Off-grid inverter:

Used in independent systems, the photovoltaic array charges the battery, and the inverter uses the DC voltage of the LFP battery as the energy source. Many standalone inverters also have integrated battery chargers that can charge the batteries using AC power.

Generally, this kind of inverter will not come into contact with the power grid, so it does not need the function of islanding effect protection. TYCORUN's full series of inverters are off-grid inverters. For more information, you can click the product listed below according to your wattage requirements.

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  • Grid-connected inverter:

The output voltage of the inverter can be fed back to the commercial AC power supply, so the output sine wave needs to be the same phase, frequency and voltage as the power supply. The grid-connected inverters have a safety design that will automatically shut down the output if it is not connected to the power supply. If the grid power supply fails, the grid-connected inverter has no backup power supply function.

  • Backup battery inverter:
A special inverter that uses a battery as its power source and works with a battery charger to charge the battery. If there is too much power, it will flow back to the AC power source. This kind of inverter can provide AC power to the specified load when the grid power fails, so it needs to have the function for islanding effect protection.


4. Energy storage battery

Energy storage batteries are mainly used in off-grid solar power generation systems and grid-connected solar power generation systems with energy storage devices. Their main function as components of solar power system is to store the electric energy generated by photovoltaic cells and supply power to the load at any time.

The basic requirements for batteries in solar power generation systems are: low self-discharge rate, long service life, high charging efficiency, strong deep discharge capability, wide operating temperature range, little or no maintenance, and low price.

5. DC combiner box

The DC combiner box as one of the main components of solar power system, are usually with hundreds of kilowatts or more. Its purpose is to centrally input and group the multiple DC output cables of the photovoltaic module array to the DC combiner box, and through the solar power in the DC combiner box.

After protection and detection by special fuses, DC circuit breakers, surge protectors and intelligent monitoring devices, the current is output to the photovoltaic inverter. The use of DC combiner boxes greatly simplifies the connection between photovoltaic modules and inverters, improves the reliability and practicality of the system, not only makes the line connections orderly, but also facilitates group inspection and maintenance.

When a partial failure occurs in the photovoltaic array, it can be partially separated and repaired without affecting the continuous operation of the overall power generation system, ensuring that the solar power generation system can exert its maximum efficiency.

6. DC distribution cabinet

Large-scale solar power generation systems, in addition to using many DC combiner boxes, also use several DC distribution cabinets as secondary and tertiary confluence components of solar power system.

The DC distribution cabinet mainly connects the DC cables output from each DC combiner box and combines them again, and then the output is connected to the grid-connected inverter, which is beneficial to the installation, operation and maintenance of the system.


7. AC distribution cabinet and combiner box

AC power distribution cabinet is a power equipment connected between the inverter and AC load or public grid in the solar power generation system. Its main function is to receive, dispatch, distribute and measure electric energy, ensure the safety of power supply, and display various power parameters and monitoring faults.

The AC combiner box is generally used in string inverter systems. Its main function is to send the AC power output from multiple inverters into the AC distribution cabinet through secondary centralized confluence.

8. Booster transformer

The booster transformers as components of solar power system, are used to step up the low-voltage alternating current (0.4kV) output by the inverter to the medium- and high-voltage power grid with the same grid-connected voltage level (such as 10kV, 35kV, 110kV, 220kV, etc.).

High-voltage grid connection realizes long-distance transmission of electric energy. Small-scale grid-connected solar power generation systems are basically directly connected to the grid at the user side, and the remaining power is directly fed into the 0.4kV low-voltage power grid for self-use, so there is no need for a booster link.

The booster transformers used as components of solar power system are mainly single-phase or three-phase transformers, generally including dry type and oil-immersed type.

9. Photovoltaic bracket

The photovoltaic brackets used as components of solar power system mainly include fixed tilt angle brackets, tilt angle adjustable brackets and automatic tracking brackets. Currently, in distributed solar power generation systems, fixed-angle brackets and tilt-adjustable brackets are the most widely used.


10. Solar power system ancillary facilities

Ancillary facilities of the solar power generation system include system operation monitoring and detecting systems, and lightning protection grounding systems, etc.

The monitoring and detecting system comprehensively monitors the operating status of the solar power generation system, including the operating status of the photovoltaic modules, the working status of the inverter, the voltage and current data of the photovoltaic array, power generation output power, grid voltage frequency and solar radiation data, etc.

Monitoring can be carried out through remote connection through wired or wireless networks, and data can be obtained through terminal devices such as computers and mobile phones.


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