The hidden defects and prospects behind sodium-ion batteries



With the continuous improvement of the production and sales of new energy vehicles, lithium batteries have achieved large-scale development with the help of policies, technologies and markets, but they also face challenges such as limited raw materials, technical bottlenecks, and unformed closed-loop development.


With the return of lithium prices to rationality and the continuous transformation and upgrading of sodium-ion battery technology, large-scale mass production and application can be achieved in the corresponding fields in the future. This article will analyze lithium battery bottlenecks, sodium battery performance and cost, technology and production capacity.

1. Can sodium-ion batteries win the industry

First, the potential advantages of sodium-ion batteries are compelling. Compared with traditional lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries have certain advantages in resource abundance and cost-effectiveness.

Sodium, one of the most abundant elements on Earth, is available on a large scale, so sodium-ion batteries have great potential for large-scale energy storage and electric vehicles. Publicizing the benefits of sodium-ion batteries can help attract investment and support to drive the technology.

Secondly, the promotion of sodium-ion batteries is also out of the pursuit of innovation and competitive advantage.In the field of batteries, new technologies and innovations can bring outstanding competitive advantages to companies. By vigorously promoting sodium-ion batteries, the company has demonstrated its strength and foresight in developing new technologies, attracting the attention of more investors, partners and customers.

Can sodium-ion batteries win the industry


However, we cannot ignore the existing shortcomings of sodium-ion batteries. Despite showing good performance in some aspects, sodium-ion batteries are still in the R&D and improvement phase, and many technical challenges need to be solved.

Issues such as security, reliability and durability still require further research and improvement. In 2023, with the maturity of the market environment, it will benefit from high safety, high and low temperature performance and prominent cost advantages. The top 10 lithium battery companies in the world have laid out emerging fields of sodium ion, but they are still in the stage of research and development and small-scale application.

2. Challenges faced by lithium batteries

The lithium battery industry is now in a period of rapid development and has derived some development points. For example, due to limited lithium resources, the cathode material market is fiercely competitive, and companies with weak integrated production are facing elimination.

Since the performance of existing lithium batteries is approaching the theoretical upper limit or has not reached the optimal state, it is still necessary to further iterate the supply of new materials/products to the market to meet the needs of high performance and high security guarantees.

As the backbone of new energy, the development of lithium batteries still needs to return to the goal of sustainable green, and whether the industry is recyclable and whether production and use are sustainable is the ultimate goal of lithium battery development. It complements the performance of lithium batteries, and the cost advantage is highlighted after mass production.

Challenges faced by lithium batteries


● Performance comparison of sodium-ion batteries and lithium batteries

Sodium-ion batteries and lifepo4 battery have their own advantages, and are expected to supplement lithium batteries in energy storage and other fields. Sodium-ion batteries work similarly to lithium-ion batteries, but use sodium ions as charge carriers. From the performance point of view, the energy density and cycle life of sodium-ion batteries are lower than those of lithium batteries, but the safety and high and low temperature performance are better.

The BOM cost of sodium-ion batteries is about 30-40% lower, and it is expected to be lower after large-scale production. Since the cost of sodium carbonate is less than 1% of lithium carbonate, the BOM cost of sodium batteries.

Especially the cost of the cathode, is much lower than that of lithium batteries. After mass production of sodium-ion batteries, it is expected to be popularized and applied in the field of energy storage that does not require high energy density, but has higher requirements for safety and cost control.

3. The battery technology route is uncertain

According to the sodium electrocathode division, the mainstream route mainly includes three types: layered oxide, polyanion and Prussian blue.

Among them, the layered oxide and lithium battery ternary structure are similar, both are layered structures. The technical route is relatively clear and mature, although the stability is poor due to moisture absorption problems. However, the route has high energy density and good rate performance. Polyanion cycling has excellent performance but low energy density.

The battery technology route is uncertain


Prussian blue has a problem with crystal water and a low cycle life. The route is still evolving. The overall development stage of top 10 sodium-ion battery companies in the world is early, but it is still in the small-scale application stage.

4. Mass production and application of batteries

Compared with the lithium-ion industry chain, the sodium ion industry chain has the biggest change for the upstream raw material end, the current sodium battery industry chain is progressing rapidly, the mass production of upstream raw materials is imminent, the research and development of various materials is constantly improving.

 And the cost is expected to be reduced after mass production in the future, promoting the growth of the sodium electricity market. So it should be noted that publicity does not mean that sodium-ion batteries are fully mature or have solved all problems. In practice, further development, testing and validation are still required to ensure safety, reliability and durability.

● What are the advantages and disadvantages of other types of batteries

To understand this problem. First of all, we must first look at the comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various batteries, and briefly understand the current mainstream technology! In addition to sodium-ion batteries, there are currently many other types of batteries available. Here are some common battery types:

● Lead-acid batteries

It is a traditional battery technology commonly used in automotive starter batteries and backup power systems. It has low cost and high discharge current capability, but low energy density.

● Nickel-cadmium batteries

It is another rechargeable battery commonly used in devices such as portable tools, emergency lighting, and drones. It has a high discharge current capacity, but due to the high cadmium content, it causes pollution to the environment and is gradually replaced by lithium-ion batteries.

Mass production and application of batteries


● Nimh batteries

Nimh is a non-polluting, environmentally friendly rechargeable battery, commonly used in hybrid vehicles, portable electronic devices, etc. It has a high energy density and a long life.

In addition, there are other types of batteries such as zinc-air batteries, manganese batteries, lithium polymer batteries, solid-state batteries. Each of which has its own unique characteristics and application scenarios. With the continuous advancement of science and technology, battery technology is also constantly innovating and developing to meet the demand for batteries in different fields.

5. Conclusion

Due to the problem of low energy density of sodium electricity, the market development space of sodium batteries depends on the price trend of lithium batteries and the maturity rate of sodium electricity technology.

While technology continues to make breakthroughs, sodium batteries can play an advantage in two-wheel vehicle and energy storage applications with low sensitivity to relative energy density demand, while their advantages of low cost, high safety, convenient resource development and high synergy with lithium battery production, and achieve market expansion and efficiency by reducing costs.


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