The development of new phosphate-type batteries




A number of battery companies are accelerating the launch of lifepo4 battery upgrade products.  They hope to further squeeze the nickel ternary market by improving performance factors such as low temperature, cycling, energy density and charge and discharge.

1. The opinion of the battery companies

CATL said that CATL's battery is expected to be mass-produced and delivered this year. In the case of large-scale application, this batteries can reduce costs and increase efficiency, low temperature performance and energy density are better than lifepo4 batteries, and their cost is better than ternary lithium batteries.

It is worth noting that while CATL launched the phosphate battery this year, it also cooperated with upstream material companies to continue to strengthen the development of phosphate battery material systems.

Gotion unveiled two  manganese phosphate lithium chemical products: L300 and L600. The L300 and L600 adopt the industry's most advanced lithium manganese phosphate chemical system. Compared to lithium iron phosphate, the system also has a high safety performance, and the energy density at this stage can reach 240 Wh/kg, and the volumetric energy density exceeds 500 Wh/L.

Gotion said that the L300 and L600 will be identified as the "standardized batteries" promoted by Gotion together with 46 series large cylindrical batteries with an energy density of 310 Wh/kg. Better meet the design of high grouping efficiency cells such as CTP/CTC.

A 100 Ah square manganese iron phosphate lithium battery with an energy density of 220 Wh/kg has been launched, which has the advantages of low cost, high safety and a long cycle. Design and develop new lithium iron phosphate products, and manufacture new lifepo4 products.

The opinion of the battery companies


It is worth mentioning that it masters the independent core technologies of cathode materials, such as conductivity comprehensive improvement, high-capacity multi-component cathode material production  and ternary cathode material surface modification technology. Industry insiders speculate that the new lithium iron phosphate product developed by the two parties is likely to be one of the material systems of CATL.

2. Medium-nickel ternary battery market

Although CATL has repeatedly talked about M3P batteries in public, the industry has not seen their true appearance so far, nor has it really understood what kind of phosphate system material it uses.

At an investor survey event last February, CATL announced for the first time that it would launch a new product, the M3P battery. Specifically, it is not limnpo4, but also contains other metal elements, forming a ternary phosphate battery system.

According to CATL, m3p battery maintains the characteristics of high safety and long life of lithium iron phosphate, and the energy density of the battery cell is increased by 20%, which is very competitive.

● The competitiveness of the battery

M3P batteries can be doped with two metal elements, such as magnesium, zinc and aluminum, and form a substitute at certain iron points, generating ternary phosphate system materials to improve charge and discharge capacity and cycle stability.

If the energy density of lifepo4 is increased by 20%, the energy density of M3P cells will be more than 210 Wh/kg, which is expected to reach the energy density level of nickel ternary batteries. However, its cost is better than ternary batteries, and if the product is introduced into the market, it is likely to pose a greater threat to the nickel ternary market.

Medium-nickel ternary battery market


In fact, in terms of lithium manganese phosphate, Gotion also recently revealed that the energy density of its L300 and L600 lithium manganese phosphate batteries has been around 210Wh/kg to 240Wh/kg. The energy density is already equivalent to that of medium and high voltage ternary batteries.

There is an industry view of service companies that this may pose a threat to the nickel high voltage market at this stage. In terms of endurance, whether it is an M3P battery or a limnpo4 battery, it aims for a range of 700 km.

● Automotive market for lithium salts

CATL said the M3P battery can be used for mid-range models with a cruising range of about 700 km. "In the mainstream new energy vehicle market with a 700km range, CATL's solution is M3P cells plus Kirin battery structure, and these two technologies are used in combination."

At this stage, the 700km cruising range of the model requires the battery to mainly use medium nickel high voltage, or high nickel ternary, and with the cost and safety advantages, manganese lithium phosphate, M3P and other batteries, if successfully entered this market, high nickel ternary could also go up, but medium nickel ternary will undoubtedly encounter a direct impact.

Lithium manganese phosphate, M3P and other batteries based on the iron lithium system have also attracted the attention of car companies because of their economic and safety advantages. According to reports, NIO is independently developing lithium manganese phosphate batteries and plans to mass-produce them.

In the future, the planned production capacity will reach 40 GWh. In addition to lithium manganese phosphate batteries, 46 series large cylindrical batteries will also be produced. Tesla also plans to use CATL M3P batteries in its related models, with a battery life increase of at least 10%.

3. Material enterprise production capacity competition

In terms of production processes, the production processes of lithium manganese phosphate and lithium iron phosphate are similar. Synthesized by high temperature solid phase reaction method and hydrothermal synthesis method, the process is mature and suitable for mass production.

Material enterprise production capacity competition


At present, with the rise of manganese lithium phosphate, the most opportunities are for upstream companies of lithium ion battery cathode materials . As a potential alternative material for lithium iron phosphate and ternary 5 series, lithium manganese phosphate is expected to reach 56 GWh in the field of electric vehicles by 2025.

The demand for pairing with ternary compound will reach 28 GWh, and the total demand is about 84 GWh. Since the second half of last year, material companies have carried out extensive capacity layout of the new phosphate system represented by limnpo4, and capacity competition has begun.

4. Conclusion

In the first two months of this year, CATL's share of lithium iron phosphate batteries in the Chinese market fell to second place, surpassed by BYD. It is foreseeable that if the new lithium iron phosphate batteries such as CATL M3P and Gotion L330/L600 are mass-produced this year, the pace of application will accelerate, which will not only have a greater impact on the nickel ternary market, but also have an impact on the lithium market and pattern.


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