Offshore wind turbine has the characteristics of wide distribution, unattended operation, harsh operating environments, and difficult manual inspection, which have higher requirements for digitalization, intelligent control and remote operation and maintenance. This paper analyses the characteristics of offshore wind farms and the current status of wind turbine monitoring systems.
Based on digitalization, intelligent monitoring and remote intelligent operation and maintenance requirements of the main and auxiliary facilities of the offshore wind turbine platform. Analyze the system architecture and technical characteristics of the system, and expect the intelligent construction of offshore wind turbine.
1. Characteristics of offshore wind farms
The offshore environment has a high temperature difference, high humidity, and high salt spray, often affected by lightning and typhoons. The operating environment is harsh, and the probability of unit equipment failure is high. The installed scale is large, there are many wind turbines, the distribution of sea areas is wide, and the inspection is very inconvenient.
Offshore wind turbine are far from shore. Due to climate and transportation constraints, accessibility is poor, operation and maintenance are difficult, and the cost is high. Offshore wind turbine is unattended. Offshore rising pressure stations are usually unmanned and need to be remotely supervised by centralized onshore control stations, and their levels of automation and communication reliability are very demanding.
However, offshore wind farms are still in the early stages of development, and in the future they will be planned to be deployed for home energy storage, adding a feasible road for coastal users. However, current barriers to energy storage technology and high costs need to be addressed.
2. Current status of offshore wind turbine systems
Communication protocol for offshore wind turbine monitoring systems. At present, most of them are determined by companies and are incompatible with each other, and it is difficult to achieve unified monitoring and management in onshore centralized photovoltaic power station.
The monitoring subsystems of the main and auxiliary equipment and facilities are independent of each other, resulting in many problems such as inconvenient operation and maintenance management. It is mainly reflected in the following aspects. The fan control system is determined by the company and is not open.
The unit has a low degree of digitalization and intelligence, and lacks simple and efficient remote operation and maintenance control methods. Monitoring subsystems for offshore wind turbine, independent of each other. Information-sharing between units is also insufficient, and coordination and control are inconvenient.
There are many monitoring subsystems for internal and external auxiliary facilities that are independent of each other and require cumbersome supervision. There are also problems such as incomplete coverage, imperfect functions, and irregular information formats, and information cannot be effectively shared.
3. Integrated system of offshore wind turbine
The digitalization and intelligence of equipment and facilities are the basis for remote intelligent regulation, management, and operation and maintenance. The rapid development and wide application of new technologies such as intelligent monitoring of main and auxiliary equipment and facilities have provided key technical support. The integrated system integrates the main and auxiliary equipment of the offshore wind turbine and the auxiliary facilities inside and outside the tower as a whole to achieve interconnection.
Fully apply intelligent sensing, intelligent monitoring, video surveillance, remote communication, and other technologies to realize the remote unified monitoring and management of the main and auxiliary equipment, the basic environment, and the safety protection of the unit.
Various intelligent equipment collections is arranged inside and outside the engine room and tower base of offshore wind turbine. Intelligent terminals are connected to the integrated system of wind turbines through network interfaces or communication conversion devices.
The system of each unit is integrated through the integrated monitoring and management system of the ring network switch. After the information collection of the booster station, it is connected to the integrated system of the whole field comprehensive monitoring and management of the centralized ground control station. The onshore centralized control station also has an interface with the power generation group's remote regional centralized control center.
4. The main technical features of intelligent management system
● Intelligent monitoring of offshore wind turbine
The monitoring system of the wind turbine is a distributed control system, similar to the distributed pv system. Real-time monitoring of the operation data of the unit and power grid, as well as the meteorological and environmental conditions, and regulation of various operation modes of the unit. It is mainly composed of main control, pitch, yaw, converter and other main modules, with monitoring, regulation and protection functions.
Intelligent wind turbines that can actively sense, think, judge and make decisions adopt advanced algorithms, active performance control and intelligent control and other technologies. Accurately perceive its own state and external environment, and try to run at the best working point by optimizing the operation mode and intelligently adjusting the control strategy.
The intelligent unit perceives its own working state like a person, and at the same time combines accurate wind power prediction to intelligently adjust the power of the unit to achieve unit performance optimization. The intelligent wind farm carries out coordinated control of network sources to achieve the global optimization control goal of the whole site. The offshore wind turbine is an intelligent equipment group that integrates machine and battery.
● Condition monitoring and remote intelligent diagnosis of faults
Offshore wind farms have a harsh environment, with accelerated component failures and high mechanical and electrical failure rates under lightning, salt spray corrosion, high humidity and ice loads. Equipment post-failure treatment mode carries the risk of over-repair or disrepair. Whether it is repaired immediately also depends on factors such as weather, boats, etc.
In the marine climate environment such as typhoons, ocean waves, and tides, personnel accessibility is poor, and operation and maintenance operations are difficult. Due to the lack of comprehensive operating status data, it is impossible to understand the historical operating status of wind turbines, which increases the uncertainty of the operation and maintenance period.
Downtime is long and unit availability decreases, seriously impacting operational efficiency. The energy generated can be stored in the battery. On-line monitoring of the status of wind turbines integrates the condition monitoring of generators and other equipment. Through comprehensive condition monitoring, fault diagnosis based on electrical and mechanical characteristics and fault diagnosis of key components based on multi-parameter information fusion can be realized.
The fault remote intelligent diagnosis system comprehensively integrates various condition monitoring and multi-faceted reference information to carry out state assessment and trend prediction. Provides comprehensive fault diagnosis and early warning.
● Intelligent monitoring of auxiliary equipment and facilities
Intelligent auxiliary control is one of the core contents of the integrated monitoring and management system. The main control, power generation management and video monitoring system of the horizontal connection unit, and the corresponding functional subsystem of the station control layer are vertically connected to provide the operation status data of auxiliary facilities for the wind turbine and the whole field integrated monitoring system.
Due to exposure to environmental conditions such as moisture and salt spray, offshore wind turbine has a high probability of fire risk due to electrical equipment failure. For key risk areas such as electrical cabinets and engine rooms, fire monitoring and linkage fire protection are carried out to avoid huge economic losses.
In view of the particularity of the environment and security vulnerabilities, on the basis of Beidou satellite positioning, wireless network communication and short message services, through the addition of security protection terminals and platforms, the collaborative linkage of multiple subsystems such as access control and video voice is built to establish an intelligent security protection system.
The mobile energy storage system is configured in the cabin and the tower base platform, and the switch network is connected through the field optical cable ring network. It can also meet the demand for electricity, and is currently developed with large-capacity lifepo4 battery.
● Intelligent inspection and inspection of wind turbines
Video monitoring points are set up in the cabin, tower and top of the cabin, and together with the remote monitoring platform and large screen, image capture, transmission, and analysis functions are realized. Monitor the operation of the main control cabinet, converter cabinet, electrical cabinet and box transformer cabinet inside and outside the tower.
The top of the cabin can also monitor the sea environment around the unit and the operation of other energy storage units. Intelligent management of wind turbines Digital and intelligent construction of wind turbines. Intelligent management of equipment operation, maintenance documentation and safety is also one of the core contents of intelligent construction. All this will significantly improve the intelligent level of wind turbine management and create a new model of intelligent operation.
5. ConclusionBased on the particularity of the operating environment of offshore wind turbine and the requirements of high reliability, intelligent control is realized through remote supervision. It has laid a solid foundation for the construction of grid-friendly offshore smart wind farms and ushered in a new model of intelligent operation.