1 Saving is a virtue
The energy shortage situation is protracted, but for a conservation-minded society, energy will be more abundant. For the same amount of energy production, pay attention to economizing on use and casual waste, the situation is quite different. The latter makes people feel embarrassed, and the former makes people feel relaxed, which is self-evident. Proposing to build a conservation-oriented society is not to ask people to cut down on food and clothing passively and reduce consumption. On the contrary, it is precisely to satisfy consumption to a greater extent and try to be just right. If it is wasted while producing, no amount of output will be enough. A conservation-oriented society is first and foremost a concept that recognizes conservation as a virtue and establishes a social fashion that takes pride in conservation. Wealthy societies and rich people also need to economize, but not poor societies and poor people need to practice economization. How to cultivate an awareness of economization? For example, many household appliances nowadays use remote controls. When you turn off the remote control and leave, and do not turn off the power, the electrical appliances are still in a charged state and continue to consume a little electricity, which is about 7% of the power-on state. . Don't think that this power consumption doesn't matter. If everyone in the whole society does this, the energy saved will be considerable. Cultivate energy-saving awareness, you can start from here, don't be afraid of troubles, and develop the habit of turning off the power. We must cultivate the awareness of conservation among the people, build conservation-oriented governments, conservation-oriented cities, conservation-oriented enterprises and conservation-oriented communities, and implement energy conservation to families and individuals. Building a conservation-minded society should not only be an advocacy, but also a code of conduct. Starting from a region, come up with a planning goal and behavioral energy-saving norms, and you will reap both conscious and material results. In a populous China, domestic energy consumption accounts for a large proportion of the country's total energy consumption, about 30%. It is another big head after industrial energy consumption. The energy consumption per capita in China is not high, but it is used extensively, and there is still much room for saving. Consumption and saving are two different things. No contradiction does not mean that the consumption level is not high, and energy saving has no value. If you don't make good use of these saved spaces, it will expand as the consumption level increases, and the loss will be even greater.
2 Energy saving starts at home
The family is the cell of society. Many forms of energy use exist in the home. Cooking, heating, air conditioning, and lighting all use energy. The habit of energy saving is cultivated here. When the family members are in society, they are more likely to accept social conservation initiatives. And many families pay attention to energy saving itself, and the energy saved is also huge. Let us take heating, air conditioning, and lighting as examples to analyze the potential of energy saving. Heating is mainly used in residential buildings, and buildings in public services are also heated indoors, which can be considered together. Heating has become the "big hole" of residential energy consumption, mainly in the northern regions in winter. The land area of China's heating areas accounts for 70% of the country's land area. In these areas, the daily average temperature is 5℃ or below for more than 90 days in a year, and the longest in Manzhouli is 210 days. The total urban population in the heating area exceeds 150 million. Taking 200 years for example, a total of 3.7 billion square meters of building area uses 114 million tons of standard coal for heating, plus 14 million tons of coal for rural areas, and 400 for winter heating in the Yangtze River Basin. Ten thousand tons, the national heating shared 132 million tons of standard coal, accounting for about 10% of the country’s total energy consumption. However, it should be said that the heating level is still inadequate, and the vast rural areas lack regular fuel for heating. It can be expected that with the increase of residential and public building area and heating degree, the proportion of this energy consumption may also increase. There is no doubt that energy-saving measures must be taken to reduce energy pressure. Can low heating levels still save energy? The answer is yes. Residential heating energy consumption is closely related to building technology and materials, and we started from then on. The heat consumption of heating houses is composed of two parts: heat transfer through the enclosure structure (walls, roofs, floors, etc.) and air penetration in the gaps between doors and windows, and the heat loss of the two is about half. The choice of the envelope structure and its materials is very important. The existing houses in China mostly use solid clay bricks as walls and single-frame steel windows, which have poor thermal insulation and air tightness. On the whole, the energy consumption per unit building area for heating is about three times that of developed countries under the same temperature conditions. This gap means huge energy-saving potential.
The basic principle of heating and energy saving is to maximize heat gain and minimize external heat dissipation. Therefore, good design including orientation, spacing, area exposed to sunlight, air tightness of doors and windows, and the use of new building materials are indispensable. These technologies and materials are applied to newly added houses and gradually renovated old houses with poor thermal insulation, and can receive significant energy-saving effects. Secondly, the heating method has a great relationship with energy saving, and the design and management of the heating system must be improved. In the urban construction area, non-residential area accounts for less than half. It is cost-effective to adopt central heating method, and the same is true for residential buildings. If electricity is used for decentralized heating, because electricity is a high-quality energy source, the efficiency of conversion from coal is very low, and then it is converted into thermal energy for heating, the overall efficiency is even lower, which is unreasonable. The "Civil Building Design Standards (Part of Heating Residential Buildings)" implemented by China in 1986 proposed that residential heating can save 30% of the energy consumption compared to the 1981 design level of coal consumption; in 1996, as the second stage of energy saving, this percentage was increased. To 50%; in 2005, as the third stage of energy saving, it is required to save energy by 30% on the basis of the second stage, which shows that there is a lot of room for energy saving.
Next, let's talk about air conditioners, which are also a "big consumer" of energy consumption. The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China are hot in summer and cold in winter, while in Guangdong, Guangdong and Fujian, the use of air conditioners in buildings is becoming more and more common, becoming the focus of building energy consumption, mainly to cool down on hot days. It is estimated that when China's per capita GDP reaches 4,000 US dollars, residential air conditioners will become popular throughout the country. This number is not far off for urban residents. The power consumption of urban air conditioners will approach 20% of the country's total power generation. Air-conditioning power consumption is concentrated in summer. In some cities, air-conditioning has accounted for more than 50% of the peak load of the power grid. In many cities, power shortages are common in summer. Therefore, energy-saving air-conditioning is an important aspect. Air-conditioning energy consumption is certainly related to building structure and materials, and measures need to be taken in technology, but it is more related to people's energy-saving awareness and lifestyle. For example, American houses often have windows closed, regular ventilation, the room temperature is maintained at 18~26℃ for a long time, and the heating and cooling air conditioners operate all year round. This is an over-consumption lifestyle. This is not the case for the Chinese. The room temperature of the house is accepted at 15~29℃, and people do not turn on the air conditioner when they are not at home. Compared with these two lifestyles alone, the power consumption is more than 3 times different. Since the Chinese have a tradition of frugality, why compare? Quite a few people think that their lifestyle should be in line with foreign countries. They also close the windows and turn down the air-conditioning temperature. They wear thick clothes and quilts on hot days. They think they can afford it and don’t care. It is commonplace in many public buildings, especially offices and hotels. Therefore, it is completely necessary to propose energy saving of air-conditioning. In recent years, the society has advocated setting the air conditioner temperature to 26~28°C, which has saved a lot of electricity.
Picture:Incandescent lamps and energy-saving lamps
Lighting is a basic facility inside and outside residential and public buildings, and energy conservation is also learned. Electric lighting is the most advanced modern lighting method, which converts electrical energy into visible light to emit light. Traditionally, incandescent electric lamps are used for lighting. The light emitted by incandescent electric lamps is similar to sunlight, has good color rendering, continuous spectrum, simple lamp structure, easy manufacture, low price and convenient use, making it the most widely used lamp. However, the fatal disadvantage of incandescent electric lamps is the low luminous efficiency. Electric energy burns the filament to incandescent heat. A small part of the energy is converted into visible light, and most of the energy is converted into heat and radiated by infrared rays. The luminous efficiency of incandescent electric lamps is about 7-15 lumens. The luminous efficiency of energy-saving fluorescent lamps (commonly known as fluorescent lamps) can reach 60 lumens per watt. The luminous flux produced by an 11-watt energy-saving fluorescent lamp is equivalent to a 60-watt incandescent lamp, and the luminous efficiency is 4 higher than that of an incandescent lamp. Times, energy saving 75%~80%, and longer life, up to about 8000 hours. Among all kinds of energy-saving fluorescent lamps, thick tube type (Φ38mm) fluorescent lamp, thin tube type (Φ26mm) fluorescent lamp, compact fluorescent lamp, etc., have a better technology One is advanced, the energy-saving effect is better than the other, the lighting makes people feel comfortable and does not harm health, and it has been widely promoted and applied in residential buildings.
Picture: Compact fluorescent lamp
There are also a variety of high-efficiency light sources, such as high-pressure mercury lamps, high- and low-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, etc., which are widely used in outdoor squares, roads, halls and other occasions. Regarding the benefits of energy-saving lamps, someone has made an analogy: the brightness of an 18-watt energy-saving lamp is equivalent to an 80-watt incandescent lamp, each can save about 80% of electricity; to build an annual output of 10 million energy-saving lamps The plant can save electricity equivalent to the construction of a power plant with an installed capacity of 750,000 kilowatts. ). The construction investment of the lamp factory is much lower than that of the power plant, only 1/6 to 1/4 of that of the power plant, and the environmental pollution account of the power plant has not been accounted for. We are not advocating to build fewer power plants and more light factories, but if electricity is wasted while building power plants, isn't it a double loss of energy and environment?
China has a large population, a large area of residential and public buildings, and the proportion of electricity consumed by lighting is not small, accounting for about 12% of the total power generation, which is comparable to the relevant proportion in developed countries. High-efficiency lighting has become a top priority, and there is a great potential for energy saving. In 1991 Under the dual pressures of the energy crisis and environmental protection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first put forward the "Green lights" and "Green Lighting Project" propositions, which attracted the attention of many countries. China began to implement the "China Green Lighting Project" in 1996, which was supported and funded by the United Nations Development Program and the Global Foundation. By 2000, through the implementation of green lighting projects, a total of 45 billion kWh of electricity was saved, which is equivalent to the annual output of 9 million kilowatts of installed capacity, and a large amount of peak electricity load was reduced, and carbon dioxide emissions (in terms of carbon) were reduced by 1,300. 10,000 tons, the benefit is considerable.
| Tips: Green Lighting
The so-called "green lights" refer to lighting that saves energy, protects the environment, improves people's work efficiency and quality of life, and protects health. In 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first proposed green lighting as a proposition to alleviate the oil crisis and help protect the environment. Their propositions were quickly supported by the United Nations and attracted the attention of many countries, and they actively adopted corresponding policies and technical measures to formulate and implement "green lighting projects."
Energy-saving lighting, it is worth mentioning that there is also the implementation of the "daylight saving time" schedule. Many countries in the world, including the United States and other developed countries, have implemented summer time to produce an interest time. Taking advantage of the long days and short nights in summer, setting the clock forward by one hour can reduce the electricity consumption for lighting. The Chinese territory is located in the northern hemisphere. Although the latitude is not high, during the six months before and after summer, from early April to mid-September, there are five and a half months in total, and the sunshine time (daylight) is more than 12 hours. China began to implement daylight saving time in 1986. The period from May 4th to September 14th that year directly saved 1.8 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity for lighting and brought many indirect benefits. The implementation of daylight saving time does not require additional investment and construction, nor does it disrupt work order, but the effect is obvious. China has implemented daylight saving time for several years, but then it has not persisted. Some people may think that the modern lifestyle does not require daylight saving time, shift production day and night, and even turn on the lights during the day, and do not care about the lighting during this hour. The implementation of daylight saving time makes people uncomfortable. This is a one-sided understanding. With the implementation of daylight saving time, you only need to turn the clock once a year at the beginning and end, and feelings of unaccustomedness can be eliminated in a few days. Except for those who work in shifts and special types of work, the vast majority of people in the country live and rest normally. They use daylight to work, reduce lighting, and save energy. Why not?
| Tips: Daylight Saving Time
In summer, the practice of turning clocks and watches for 1 to 2 hours in order to make full use of daylight and save energy is called "daylight saving time." The idea of daylight saving time was first proposed by the British, but Germany first adopted daylight saving time, which was implemented in March 1916. Countries such as France, Austria, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway followed closely. Later, the United Kingdom and the United States both implemented and persisted, and there was no interruption during the Second World War.
Energy conservation in transportation is even more important. What it saves is not general energy, but scarce oil. Let's not talk about the transportation and logistics operations in production for the time being, but will focus on the means of transportation used in people's daily life. With the development of the economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the number of privately owned cars has increased rapidly. Nowadays, China has become the world's leading automobile producer and consumer country, with an annual production capacity of more than 10 million vehicles. Among the tens of millions of cars in the country, about half are owned by individuals. This was a good thing, indicating that the automobile has become a pillar industry of the country, and the people's consumption level has also been greatly improved. Compared with more than 600 million cars in the world, our car is not that many; if per capita, the number of cars per capita in China is still very low, but the energy saving of transportation cannot be ignored, or I think there is not much "oil and water" for energy saving. In terms of total amount, China's car ownership is also quite large, and the growth momentum is strong. China is already a net importer of oil, and it can be said that it relies on imported oil to maintain energy for automobiles. On the other hand, automobile exhaust has become a major source of air pollution in many cities. Imagine that we also live the lifestyle of a developed country. Most people own cars, not to mention whether oil can be supplied or the degree of environmental pollution. Roads and parking lots alone are overwhelmed. This is not the life of a conservation-minded society. We can't stop people from owning cars, but we can make transportation convenient without buying cars, or buy energy-efficient cars and use cars rationally. This is the focus of energy-saving transportation. How can it be done? One is to vigorously develop public transportation, and the other is to produce and use small cars with small displacements.
One or two people in a car, the burden of gasoline, tolls, parking fees, etc. is very heavy, of course it is very wasteful. If public transportation is developed, buses, trams, subways, and light rail trains will extend in all directions, and the transfer will be convenient and user-friendly. Many people may not buy a car or drive less, eliminating the trouble of traffic jams and parking, and energy consumption is much less. . The construction of a more complete public transportation system should be the focus of solving the traffic problems in countries and regions with large populations. But the reality is not the case. In some of our cities, the focus of some departments is tilted towards private traffic. One-way traffic, elevated roads, and parking lots are stitched together, and fuel consumption increases in disregard. The current public transport in China only accounts for about 10% of people's travel share on average. Most people go out on motorcycles, bicycles or on foot, and of course they want to own a car. This bus sharing rate is far lower than that of some developed cities, such as London, Paris, and Tokyo, where the bus sharing rate is more than 70%. Our public transport share rate is so low, compared with the situation of such a large population, it really does not fit. Isn’t it called "International Car-Free Day"? It seems ridiculous that some cities simply ignore it. It should be said that this is a good proposal. For the first time in 2007, China organized 108 cities to enthusiastically participate in car-free day activities. In fact, car-free days are not truly car-free. Buses drive more happily, and there are no restrictions on taxis. Only private cars are restricted. These conditions indicate that the construction and improvement of the public transport system has become a global trend, and it is even more important in the face of energy shortages, environmental degradation, and population surges.
The production and use of energy-efficient vehicles and the rational use of vehicles are alternative approaches to energy conservation in transportation and should be vigorously promoted. In addition, the rational use of cars is also very important for energy saving. The experience of developed countries is worth learning. Most people in their countries own cars, why is the public transportation share rate so high? It turns out that since the oil crisis, developed countries have also learned lessons and vigorously built public transportation systems. About 75% of family cars are used only on weekend trips. On weekdays, you can easily take the bus to work and go out. Of course, it is detrimental to the maintenance of the vehicle if there is a car that does not drive or only drives for a short distance. With knowledge introduction, it is best to drive three or two times a week for more than half an hour each time, which is conducive to the lubrication of the car and the charging of the battery. If the bus is convenient, car owners can also use the car in this way, taking both convenience and energy saving into consideration.
| Tips: International Car-Free Day
"Car Free Day" was born in France in 1999 and is set to be September 22 every year. France put forward the goal of car-free sunrise to protect the environment and enhance people's awareness of environmental protection. This action has been responded to by many countries and later developed into the "International Car-Free Day" event. In fact, a car-free day is not really car-free, it just restricts private cars, so that buses can drive more smoothly. Many people voluntarily do not drive their own cars on this day and use buses instead.