In recent years, the Chinese government has continuously introduced policies to encourage enterprises and individuals to adopt distributed solar photovoltaic power generation, and the development of distributed solar photovoltaic has continued to leap to a new level.
Relevant experts said that distributed solar photovoltaic are the best mode for solar photovoltaic power generation applications. In the future, distributed solar photovoltaic will be integrated with more fields, and enter more cities through the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) model, and the industry will usher in explosive growth.
1. Optimum mode for photovoltaic power generation applications
Distributed solar photovoltaic system refers to photovoltaic power generation facilities built near the user site and characterized by the balance adjustment of the power distribution system. It has the principles of adapting measures to local conditions, clean and efficient, decentralized layout, and nearby use. In recent years, China has introduced many policies to actively promote distributed solar photovoltaic power generation. Not long ago, the Chinese government issued relevant documents, proposing that by 2025, the photovoltaic coverage rate on the roofs of new public buildings and new factories should reach 50%.
The continuous increase of favorable policies has promoted the construction of distributed solar photovoltaic into the fast lane. Data show that in 2021, China will add 54.88 GW of photovoltaic installed capacity. Among them, distributed solar photovoltaic reached 29.27 GW, accounting for 53.33%, exceeding the installed capacity of centralized photovoltaics, and its power generation ranked first in the world for five consecutive years. In the first half of this year, the newly installed photovoltaic capacity was 30.88 GW, of which distributed photovoltaic reached 19.65 GW, which is close to 2/3. Distributed photovoltaics have a strong development momentum and have become an important force in the growth of installed capacity.
A number of industry insiders said that distributed soalr photovoltaics may set a new record this year. According to industry insiders, the distributed solar photovoltaic power generation system has a small installed capacity, flexible and diverse forms, and is easy to combine with load centers and idle spaces, which can effectively promote the replacement of renewable energy and the dual-carbon process in various regions and industries. In addition, distributed photovoltaics can also alleviate the uneven distribution of power resources in China, and the mismatch between power generation and power consumption in the east, central and western regions.
2. Distributed solar photovoltaic market acceptance is growing
In recent years, household distributed photovoltaic installations have ushered in explosive growth. According to data released by China's National Energy Administration, in the first half of this year, the installed capacity of distributed solar photovoltaic for households was 8.91GW, a year-on-year increase of 51.5%. Industry experts said that at present, users' awareness of distributed solar photovoltaic continues to improve, and the market acceptance is getting higher and higher. At present, the household photovoltaic market is mainly located in the vast rural areas.
Farmers have limited sources of income increase, narrow investment channels, and houses are basically used for living. The choice of household photovoltaics is mainly for investment reasons. Household distributed photovoltaics not only have the functions of shading, rainproof, heat insulation, and roof protection, but also provide an extra income for ordinary people. Distributed solar photovoltaic with both production and investment are increasingly favored by factory owners. Data show that in the first half of this year, industrial and commercial distributed photovoltaics increased by 10.74GW, exceeding the installed capacity of last year.
Taking China's Jiangxi Province as an example, in July, Jiangxi Development Zone successively announced two batches of distributed photovoltaic optimization projects. Including food, textile, mining, plastics, materials, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, machinery manufacturing and other industries, involving CHN ENERGY, some of the top 10 lithium battery companies, GCL, JINKO and other companies. In addition, model innovations for the integrated development of distributed photovoltaics are also emerging, and new formats such as "photovoltaic + transportation", "photovoltaic + agriculture/fishing", and "photovoltaic + communication" are widely used.
However, despite the promising prospects of distributed solar photovoltaic, there are still challenges in the process of promotion and implementation. At present, the problem of consumption and capacity limitation in some areas cannot be ignored. Industry experts pointed out that with the grid connection of a large number of power stations, the regional capacity is limited, the market tends to be saturated, and the power infrastructure needs to be further upgraded. Industry professionals also said that the integration of photovoltaic power generation into the existing thermal power system is a huge challenge to the deployment capacity of the power system.
Higher requirements are put forward for flexible and accurate matching of power consumption and power generation. In this regard, many industry insiders said that in order to solve the problem of consumption, in addition to continuing to strengthen scientific and technological innovation, it is also necessary to cooperate with market players such as photovoltaic companies and power grid companies. Post-operation and maintenance also faces challenges. In addition, a number of industry insiders said that the rapid development of distributed solar photovoltaic has attracted many companies to enter the market. This poses new challenges to the quality of enterprise products, research and development and the comprehensive coordination of supply chains.
3. Distributed solar photovoltaic will be further integrated into cities
Industry experts predict that China's newly installed photovoltaic capacity may reach about 100 million kilowatts this year, which means that by the end of this year, photovoltaic installed capacity will exceed the total installed capacity of wind power, becoming the largest non-fossil energy source, and distributed photovoltaics will also benefit from it. So, what is the development direction of distributed photovoltaics in the future? "Photovoltaic + energy storage" will become an important mode of distributed solar photovoltaic construction.
Photovoltaic power generation has the characteristics of discontinuity and instability, and it cannot generate electricity at night and on rainy days. The solar-storage combined system of energy storage and distributed photovoltaics can improve the stability of the power generation side and the power grid, reduce the cost of electricity for users, and solve the problem of consumption. However, there is currently no breakthrough in energy storage technology. The unit capacity price of energy storage is high, and it is highly dependent on government subsidies.
How to solve this problem is crucial to the sustainable development of distributed photovoltaics. In the future, the application scenarios of distributed photovoltaics will continue to expand and deepen. Not only can distributed photovoltaic power stations be deployed along railway lines, highway slopes, etc., but also distributed photovoltaics can be combined with mobile energy products such as shared bicycles and charging treasures to further integrate home energy storage into daily life.
In addition, BIPV will be the development direction of urban distributed solar photovoltaic. Photovoltaic systems can not only be installed on the roof of buildings, but also directly integrated with buildings. That is to say, the photovoltaic modules are directly used as building materials, as the roof, exterior wall or window of the building, and become an integral part of the building. The installation of colorful photovoltaic modules can also play a decorative role, making the appearance of the building more attractive.