Power batteries that have been used in electric vehicles mainly include valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, nickel pot (Ni-Cd) batteries, nickel-zinc (Ni-Zn) batteries, nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, lithium polymer (Li-Polymer) batteries, and lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. After the development and exploration of various types of power batteries, such as lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and sodium-sulfur batteries, the main types of power batteries that are widely used in industrial production and daily life are valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Among them, lithium-ion batteries have gradually become the main energy source of electric vehicles due to their high energy density and good high-power charge-discharge characteristics.
According to the characteristics of positive and negative materials and electrochemical compositions, the following four commonly used methods can be used to classify power batteries.
1. According to the type of electrolyte
(1) Alkaline batteries. The electrolyte of alkaline batteries is mainly potassium hydroxide aqueous solution, such as alkaline zinc-manganese batteries (commonly known as alkaline manganese batteries or alkaline batteries).
(2) Acid batteries. Acid batteries mainly use sulfuric acid aqueous solution as the medium, such as lead-acid batteries.
(3) Neutral battery. Neutral batteries use salt solution as the medium, such as zinc-manganese dry batteries, seawater-activated batteries, etc.
(4) Organic electrolyte batteries. Organic electrolyte batteries mainly use organic solutions as the medium, such as lithium-ion batteries.
2. According to the nature of work and storage methods
(1) Primary battery. Also known as primary battery, that is, batteries that cannot be recharged for use, such as zinc-manganese dry batteries.
(2) Secondary batteries. Also known as rechargeable batteries, such as lead-acid batteries, nickel, cadmium batteries, nickel, hydrogen batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc.
(3) Fuel cells. Active materials are continuously added from the outside to the inside of the battery to participate in the reaction to generate electricity only when the battery is working, such as hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, metal fuel cells, etc.
(4) Reserve battery. The electrode plate of the reserve battery cannot directly contact the electrolyte during storage, and the electrolyte is not added until the battery is used, such as magnesium-silver chloride battery (also known as seawater-activated battery).
(1) Zinc series batteries. Such as zinc-manganese batteries, zinc-silver batteries, etc.
(2) Nickel series batteries. Such as nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries etc.
(3) Lead series batteries. such as lead-acid batteries.
(4) Lithium series batteries. Such as lithium-ion batteries, lithium-polymer batteries and lithium-sulfur batteries.
(5) Manganese dioxide series batteries. Such as zinc manganese batteries, alkaline manganese batteries etc.
(6) Air (oxygen) series batteries. Such as zinc-air batteries, aluminum-air batteries, etc.
4. According to the size of the battery capacity and the level of output power
(1) Energy type power battery. It usually has a large capacity and can provide a relatively long-term energy supply, and is often used in pure electric vehicles, moderate or heavy hybrid electric vehicles. Since this kind of battery occupies a large proportion in the energy configuration of the whole vehicle, its total energy often exceeds 10kWh, which can not only absorb the energy fed back when the vehicle is braking, but also improve the driving mileage when the vehicle runs in pure electric mode and reduce the total emission of pollutants.
(2) Power type power battery. Usually small in capacity, but can provide instant high-power discharge, mainly used in power tools, mild hybrid electric vehicles, etc. This kind of battery is mainly used in electric vehicles to absorb the energy of braking feedback, and at the same time provide instant extra energy for vehicle starting and acceleration and other working conditions.
(3) Power battery with both energy and power. The battery is required to have the characteristics of high energy and high power at the same time. Mainly used for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, it has high energy density, and can ensure high-power discharge in the low SOC range, and can receive high-power electric energy feedback in the high SOC range.