1. The fuel cells
Fuel cells are divided into phosphoric acid fuel cells, alkaline fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells and regenerative fuel cells. all the same. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells represent the latest progress in fuel cells, and their thermal efficiency is as high as 45% to 65%, which is 20% to 30% higher than that of general internal combustion engines. Therefore, this type of battery has great potential in automotive applications.
Fuel cells have a wide range of applications and can be used in mobile phones or household appliances, as well as in transportation. Countries including Japan, the United States, the European Union and other countries are developing fuel cell vehicles without environmental pollution.
Assuming that China only produced 5 million electric bicycles in 2009, but only 1% of new electric bicycles are produced. In addition to the automobile industry, the power generation industry is also a large demander of lithium batteries. At present, the US government is encouraging power companies to use more renewable resources such as wind energy and solar energy to generate electricity, and the energy storage equipment of solar energy and wind power generation systems must use lithium batteries. According to a survey by Deutsche Bank, vehicle companies are most willing to cooperate with The following 10 companies cooperate to develop automotive lithium batteries: ①Johnson Controls-Saft; ②A123 Systems; ③LG Chemical; ④EnerDel; ⑤AESC; ⑥PEVE; ⑦GS Yuasa; ⑧Hitachi; ⑨Sanyo Electric; ⑩Samsung.
2. Lithium-ion batteries
Through research, it can be found that Japan's lithium battery suppliers currently occupy a relatively dominant position in the global market. In 2010, Japan made use of new lithium-ion batteries for next-generation electric vehicles. Toyota, Nissan, Panasonic and other related companies signed an agreement to jointly develop a new generation of automotive lithium batteries with unified specifications, and plan to achieve mass production in 2010-2011. Toshiba has decided to spend 50 billion yen to develop lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. This high-efficiency power will enter semi-commercial production in 2010-2011.
Since the industrialization of lithium-ion batteries by Sony in 1992, the global lithium-ion battery market has basically been dominated by Japan. In recent years, with the rapid rise of China and South Korea, the market share of Japan's lithium batteries has gradually decreased, and the global lithium battery industry has formed a pattern of China, Japan and South Korea.
Although China is second only to Japan in the production of lithium batteries, it is not a strong country and is still at the middle and low end of the global lithium battery industry chain. At present, the production enterprises in China's lithium battery industry are small in scale, with low technical content and relatively single products. There are few comprehensive enterprises that can provide lithium battery series products, and the market competition is mainly concentrated in the low-end market. Competition among high-end products is mainly concentrated between only a few Chinese companies and foreign products. In recent years, with the development of HEV hybrid vehicles, 3G mobile phones and other power tools, the market share of China's lithium batteries and nickel batteries will increase rapidly, and China's lithium battery and nickel battery companies also have huge market growth space.
A research report released by Parker Research in early December 2009 predicted that the growth of the electric vehicle market will create an $8 billion lithium-ion battery market in 2015. Plug-in hybrid vehicles and pure electric vehicles will mainly use lithium-ion batteries, and hybrid vehicles will also slowly shift from using nickel-metal hydride batteries to using lithium-ion batteries. In addition, it is also predicted that with the government's subsidies and incentives for electric vehicles, consumer demand will also be driven; battery prices will drop from the current $940/(kW h) to $470/(kW) in 2015 h). Japan, the current leader in power batteries for hybrid vehicles, may continue to lead the way, while China, South Korea and H-Ben are both likely to be important suppliers of power batteries for electric vehicles.
The high-performance lithium iron phosphate material produced by the German Southern Chemical Company's headquarters in China, the Shanghai-based Shanghai-based Shide Southern Chemical Company, has been used by dozens of mainstream manufacturers since 2009. Lithium batteries made of this material have been successfully used in hybrid cars, pure electric buses, cars, sightseeing cars and other new energy vehicles, and some are also used in energy storage equipment for solar power generation and wind power generation. The lithium iron phosphate material produced by Southern Chemical Company can reach nanometer level 11. The purity is extremely high, so it has the following remarkable characteristics: First, the energy density of its commercial products is as high as 155~160mA·h/g, which is close to the theoretical value of this material 170mA·h/g; second, extremely high power density, continuous discharge power density up to 6kW/kg, instantaneous power density up to 15kW/kg, 10 times that of ordinary materials; third, excellent high and low temperature performance, at 20 ℃ It can still release 100% of the electrical energy under high temperature, and 89% of the electrical energy can be retained after 480 days at 45°C. Fourth, the battery made of this material has a long service life. After 5000 cycles of charge and discharge, it can still store 80% of the energy. Electric energy, if the electric vehicle is charged and discharged twice a day, the battery life is about 10 years; Fifth, the inherent safety is good, and thermal runaway will not occur, which can completely solve the safety hazards of lithium batteries. Due to these excellent properties, this battery has been used in the green car in the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Shide Southern Chemical Company said that electric vehicles are one of the development directions of new energy vehicles, and Southern Chemical will provide the best raw materials for lithium battery production in the Chinese market. In order to realize and localize production, Shide Southern Chemical applied to the German headquarters to invest in the establishment of a new factory in China to meet the demand for new materials in the rapidly developing Chinese lithium battery industry.