1. Three transformations of U.S. energy strategy
The U.S. energy strategy has undergone three major transformations: the first transformation was the first oil crisis that occurred in 1973, which had a huge impact on the U.S. economy and caused the U.S. economy to fall into a prolonged recession. This makes the U.S. government vigorously adjust its energy policy and energy structure, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(1) Get rid of the dependence on Middle East oil and realize the diversification of oil import regions;
(2) Promote China's resource development while improving energy efficiency;
(3) Step up the competition and development of petroleum resources in the Caspian Sea and Africa, and strengthen energy cooperation with Russia;
(4) Increase the strategic reserves of oil. On June 30, 1980, President Carter signed the "Energy Security Act of 1980", highlighting the requirements for the development of new energy sources.
The second transition was the emergency power outages in 2001 and 2003 and the continued high oil prices in 2004, which aggravated U.S. policymakers’ concerns about over-reliance on fossil energy; coupled with the "9-11" incident, the U.S. government’s international geopolitics The changes in the political situation have generated concerns, prompting a qualitative change in US energy policy. Therefore, on August 8, 2005, President Bush Jr. changed the energy policy from mainly relying on foreign energy resources to reducing the international dependence on energy, increasing China’s energy supply, saving energy, and using large amounts of clean energy as the main axis. At the same time, it was adopted in the form of legislation. Established as the core idea of U.S. energy policy for a long period of time in the future.
The third transition is Obama’s energy policy concept and "new energy plan". The core ideas are: (1) Improve energy efficiency and reduce dependence on fossil fuels, especially imported oil; (2) Pay attention to new energy development and increase Invest to encourage the research and application of new energy-related technologies; (3) stipulate the amount of renewable energy power generation, improve fuel economy standards, and reduce carbon emissions. If Obama’s "New Energy Plan" can be realized one by one, it will have a major impact on the world energy pattern and development trend; the United States will have advanced new energy technology advantages and become a major country in clean energy and new energy research and development, leading and leading a "energy revolution".
2. The evolution process of European energy policy
In November 2000, the European Commission issued a "Green Paper on EU Energy Supply Security". The proposed energy supply security strategy ideas mainly include: (1) Implement energy source diversification plans to reduce risks related to external dependence; (2) On the basis of demand management, promote energy conservation and energy efficiency, and guide consumption that "respects the environment and better control"; (3) Complete the internal market to promote greater competition among energy operators to expand energy Optional parameters for supply; (4) Give greater financial assistance to new and renewable energy sources to support nuclear energy research; (5) Enter into strategic partnerships with supplying countries to promote supply security.
On March 8, 2006, the European Commission issued a "Green Paper", clarifying the many ways to achieve a "sustainable, competitive and safe" energy supply in the EU. The key factors of the new policy include: (1) Develop a common foreign trade approach with major EU suppliers, including strengthening the dialogue between the EU and Russia, and ensuring Russia’s ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty, "to improve the country’s business in Russia and transition National investment environment”; (2) Strengthen the diversification of supply and transportation routes, including speeding up the construction of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals to promote diversification of gas supply; (3) Increase energy research, development and deployment budgets in the EU Priority status. Among them, research and development should promote local energy, including renewable energy and nuclear energy; (4) Improve the interconnection between member states, increase the transparency of the energy market, and promote competition.
3. The evolution process of China's new energy policy
In January 1995, the "1996-2010 New Energy and Renewable Energy Development Outline" formulated by the State Planning Commission, the State Science and Technology Commission, and the State Economic and Trade Commission specified that new energy and renewable energy should be accelerated in accordance with the requirements of the socialist market economy. The development of energy and the pace of industrial construction.
In August 2000, the "2000-2015 New Energy and Renewable Energy Industry Development Plan" promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization Department of the State Economic and Trade Commission systematically analyzed the basis and market for the industrialization of new energy and renewable energy in China. Development potential, expected benefits, constraints and existing problems.
In June 2002, the "Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China" put forward the concept of cleaner production. Cleaner production refers to the continuous adoption of improved design, use of clean energy and raw materials, use of advanced technology and equipment, improved management, and comprehensive Utilize and other measures to reduce pollution from the source, improve the efficiency of resource utilization, reduce or avoid the generation and discharge of pollutants in the production, service and product use process to reduce or eliminate the harm to human health and the environment. At the same time, fiscal and tax incentives have been formulated. And product catalogs and standards for clean or unclean production
In October 2007, the "Energy Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China (Amendment)", the improvement points: improve the basic system of energy conservation, reflect the organic combination of market regulation and government management, enhance the pertinence and operability of the law, and improve energy conservation Standard system and regulatory system, increase policy incentives.
In August 2009, the "Renewable Energy Law Amendment (Draft)", several important amendments to this draft include: China's renewable energy power generation will be fully subsidized by the government, and the on-grid tariff management of renewable energy power generation will also be to further improve. The state establishes a government-funded renewable energy development fund, which comes from special funds arranged in the fiscal year of the state and the levy of renewable energy electricity price surcharges. The draft also refines the full guaranteed purchase system for renewable energy power generation: it requires relevant state departments to formulate annual purchase targets and implementation plans for national renewable energy power generation, and determine and announce the full guarantee for power grid companies. To purchase the minimum quota of renewable energy power generation, grid companies should purchase the on-grid power of renewable energy grid-connected power generation projects that are not lower than the minimum quota.