The general pattern of the geographical distribution of coal resources in China is more in the west and less in the east, rich in the north and poor in the south. From the perspective of regional distribution, the reserves are mainly concentrated in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Guizhou, Ningxia, Henan and Anhui, and the reserves in the eight provinces account for nearly 90% of the national reserves. In China's natural resources, the basic characteristics are rich in coal, poor in oil, and little in gas, which determines the important position of coal in primary energy. From the changes in the proportion of coal in China's energy structure since 1971, it can be seen that coal has always occupied a dominant position in China's energy structure, and it can also be predicted that coal will still play an important role in China's energy utilization in the next 50 years. Compared with oil and natural gas, China's coal reserves are relatively abundant. China's remaining recoverable coal reserves are 114.5 billion tons, second only to the United States and Russia, ranking third in the world, accounting for 13.3% of the world's total. China is the world's largest coal producer. According to statistics, coal output in 2009 reached 2.96 billion tons, an increase of 244 million tons over 2008, a year-on-year increase of 12.7%, accounting for about 42% of the world's total output.
China is a country with little oil, but oil occupies an important position in China's energy structure (second only to coal). At present, China's oil is not fully self-sufficient, and about 50% of its oil consumption needs to be imported from abroad. In recent years, China's oil imports have been increasing, from 123 million t in 2004 to 199 million t in 2009, of which 2004 had the largest increase, reaching 34.8%. Except for 2005 and 2008, the growth rate was smaller in other years. The growth rates are all above 2 digits, which shows that China's oil consumption is highly dependent on foreign countries. By the end of 2007, China's remaining recoverable oil reserves were 2.05 billion tons, ranking 13th in the world, but only 1.3% of the world's total. The output is about 189 million tons, down 0.4% from 2008, accounting for nearly 5% of the world's oil production that year, ranking fifth in the world and belonging to the world's largest oil-producing country.
3. Natural gas
The proportion of natural gas in China's primary energy consumption structure is very small. The development of China's natural gas industry is relatively backward, but the growth rate of China's natural gas production and consumption is relatively fast. In recent years, China's natural gas production and consumption have maintained a relatively high growth rate. At present, China's proven natural gas geological resources are 22.66 trillion m3, and recoverable resources are 14.36 trillion m3. In 2007, China's natural gas production was 69.31 billion m3, an increase of 23.1% over 2006, and it entered the world's top ten natural gas production for the first time; In 2008, China's natural gas output was 76.082 billion m3, an increase of 12.3% compared with the previous year; in 2009, China's natural gas output was 82.99 billion m3, an increase of 7.7% compared with the previous year.
As a renewable and clean energy, hydropower resources are an important part of China's energy and play an important role in the energy balance and sustainable development of the energy industry. According to the specific planning and layout of China's hydropower, in 2010, the installed capacity of conventional hydropower in the western region reached about 95 million kW, accounting for 55% of the country's total, and the development level was 21.5%; among them, Sichuan and Yunnan, which have the most abundant hydropower resources, have installed hydropower capacity of 27 million kW and 17 million kW respectively, and the development level is 22.5% and 17% respectively; the installed capacity of conventional hydropower in the central region has reached 50 million kW, accounting for 30% of the national total, and the development level has reached 68%; the installed capacity of the eastern region has reached 25 million kW, accounting for 15% of the national total. Moreover, during the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, China has newly installed hydropower capacity of 73 million kW, including 13 million kW of pumped storage power stations. In 2010, the national installed hydropower capacity reached 190 million kW, accounting for about 26% of the total installed power capacity, and the development level reached 35%; among them, large and medium-sized conventional hydropower is 120 million kW, small hydropower is 50 million kW, and pumped storage power station is 20 million kW. At present, the proportion of hydropower consumption in China's energy structure is less than 6%. According to international experience and the development trend of China's market economy, the proportion of China's hydropower consumption in the energy structure will be greatly increased in the next 50 years.
5. Nuclear energy
With the advantages of abundant resources, cleanliness, inexhaustibility, economy and safety, nuclear power has become a hot spot for investment in the international energy field. From the "Nuclear Power Medium and Long-term Development Plan (2005-2020)" approved by the State Council of China, it can be seen that China's strategy for nuclear power development has changed from "moderate development" to "active development". In this context, China's nuclear power energy has a good opportunity for development. According to the plan, by 2020, the proportion of nuclear power in the total installed power capacity will increase from less than 2% now to 4%, and the annual nuclear power generation will reach 260 billion to 280 billion kWh; from 2005 to 2010, the compound annual growth rate of China's nuclear power installed capacity reached 11.9%; from 2010 to 2020, the compound annual growth rate of installed capacity reached 12.8%.
China is the country with the largest coal consumption in the world, accounting for nearly 42% of the world's total coal consumption, and its consumption ratio in primary energy is much higher than the world average. Although the proportion of crude oil consumption in China's energy structure is small, the total amount ranks second in the world, second only to the United States, accounting for 9.3% of the world's total crude oil consumption; but the proportion of consumption in primary energy is 20.7%, which is far from the world average. Natural gas consumption is relatively low, accounting for less than 4% of primary energy consumption, far below the world average. Nuclear energy consumption is relatively small, accounting for only 2.3% of the world's total nuclear energy consumption, and its proportion in primary energy consumption is 0.8%, far below the world average of 6.84%. The total hydropower consumption ranks first in the world, accounting for 15.4% of the world's total hydropower consumption, and the consumption ratio in primary energy is 5.9%, slightly lower than the world average of 7.02%. In addition, China's primary energy consumption still has problems such as seriously unreasonable primary energy consumption structure, uneven energy distribution, and serious pollution. Since China is dominated by coal, a large amount of greenhouse gases and other pollutants are produced.
In short, China's fossil energy reserves are not large, especially the reserves of natural gas and oil are very small, and the reserves per capita are even less. However, due to the rapid economic and social development, the amount of energy extracted is relatively large, and the storage-production ratio of main fossil energy is very small. Therefore, there is an urgent need to vigorously develop and use clean energy, especially renewable energy; improve energy efficiency, promote energy conservation and emission reduction in the entire country, protect the environment, and achieve sustainable, coordinated and healthy development of China's energy, environment and economy.