Energy storage vs car battery - the differences and comprehensive analysis



At present, low-carbon has become the main development direction for the world, and the demand for lithium batteries continues to rise. With the gradual maturity of lithium battery technology, people mainly divide lithium batteries on the market into two categories.


Car batteries and energy storage batteries, according to the differences in battery application scenarios. In this article, energy storage vs car battery will be discussed and what are the differences in their application also will be talked about.

1. What is a car battery

Car batteries refer to lithium batteries that are mostly used in EV, electric trains, light electric vehicles, etc., and are used to power these vehicles. The car battery voltage may be the one of the factors to affect its performance.

Also, the car batteries are on-board devices to store energy, used as driving energy in pure electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, hybrid vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles. 

They provide electrical energy for air conditioning systems, power steering systems, lighting systems, signal systems, wipers, and sprinklers, as well as in-vehicle entertainment and communication equipment.

2. What is the energy storage battery

A battery is an energy conversion and storage device that converts chemical or physical energy into electrical energy through different reactions. 

Differences of energy storage vs car battery


Energy storage batteries are commonly used in home energy storage, solar and wind power generation equipment power stations, portable power supplies, communication base stations. As well as batteries for renewable energy storage. It is also composed of battery energy storage equipment, PCS and filter links.

3. Differences of energy storage vs car battery

① The application scenarios of energy storage vs car battery

At present, energy storage vs car battery are the areas with the greatest potential for the future development of lithium batteries, and batteries used in electric vehicles and batteries used in equipment to store energy are basically energy storage batteries.

There is no difference in the technical principle between energy storage vs car battery, but due to different application scenarios, real applications have different requirements for their performance and service life.

Energy and power storage battery system products can be divided into cells, modules and battery packs according to different product forms. Battery cells are the basic core components of car battery products.

The application scenarios of energy storage vs car battery


A certain number of cells can be composed of modules, further assembled as a battery pack, and finally used in EV in the form of battery packs.

② BMS differences of energy storage vs car battery

In the battery pack, the BMS (battery management system) is the core, which determines whether the various components and functions of the battery pack can be coordinated, and is directly related to whether the battery pack can safely and reliably provide power output for electric vehicles.

Of course, the connection process, space design, structural strength, system interface, etc. of structural parts also have an important impact on the performance of the battery pack.

The energy stored battery management system is similar to the car battery management system, but the car battery system is in a high-speed moving electric vehicle.

BMS differences of energy storage vs car battery


And there are higher requirements for the power response speed and power characteristics of the battery, the accuracy of SOC estimation, the number of state parameter calculations, and the relevant adjustment functions that also need to be realized through the BMS.

③ The cycle life of energy storage vs car battery

The cycle life of energy storage vs car battery varies greatly, which is related to materials and compaction density. Energy storage vs car battery cells have major differences in cycle life requirements.

Taking electric vehicles as an example, the theoretical life of the lifepo4 batteries pack is 2000 cycles, according to the frequency of use: once every three days to fully charge and discharge, 120 times a year to fully charge and discharge, so the lithium battery life reaches 10 years.

Charging and discharging energy storage batteries more frequently, under the premise of the same 10-year calendar life, has higher requirements for cycle life. If the energy storage power station and household to store energy are charged and discharged at a frequency of once a day, the cycle life of the energy storage lithium battery is generally required to be greater than 3500 times.

The cycle life of energy storage vs car battery


If the charging and discharging frequency is increased, the cycle life requirements are usually required to reach more than 5000 times. From the perspective of battery structure, factors such as material type, positive and negative compaction density, moisture, coating film density and other factors will affect the cycle performance of the battery.

④ System and cost of energy storage vs car battery

A complete electrochemical system is mainly composed of a battery pack, battery management system (BMS), energy management system (EMS), power conversion system (PCS), and other electrical equipment. The battery pack is the most important component of the system to store energy.

The battery management system is mainly responsible for monitoring, evaluating, protecting, and balancing the battery. The energy management system is responsible for data collection, network monitoring and energy scheduling.

The PCS can control the charging and discharging processes of the energy stored battery pack and perform AC and DC conversion.

Among the cost components of storage systems, batteries are the most important component of this systems, accounting for 60% of the cost. It is followed by energy storage inverters, accounting for 20%, EMS (energy management systems) costs, accounting for 10%, BMS (battery management systems) costs, and others, accounting for 5%. 

System and cost of energy storage vs car battery


Car battery pack refers to the battery pack of EV, which provides energy for the operation of the entire vehicle. Car battery PACK basically consists of the following five systems: battery module, battery management system, thermal management system, electrical system and structural system.

The cost of an automobile battery system is composed of comprehensive costs such as cells, structural parts, BMS, boxes, auxiliary materials, and manufacturing costs. The battery cell accounts for about 80% of the cost, and the cost of the pack (including structural parts, BMS, boxes, auxiliary materials, manufacturing costs, etc.) accounts for about 20% of the total cost of the battery pack.


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