Since wind power began to receive attention from European and American countries in the 1980s, the global wind power generation has grown rapidly at an astonishing rate of 30% per year. From the perspective of international experience, the government's incentive policies play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. High-intensity incentive mechanism is one of the key measures to overcome development obstacles and promote industrial development.
The main ways of renewable energy to promote the system
The renewable energy promotion system of various countries in the world can be mainly divided into two methods: the fixed electricity price system and the fixed electricity system.
Fixed electricity price system: The government sets a preferential purchase price for renewable energy, and the market determines the quantity. The main methods include:
(1) Equipment subsidies: Denmark, Germany and Spain all adopted equipment subsidies in the early stages of wind power development;
(2) Fixed purchase price: Germany, Denmark and Spain adopt this method;
(3) Fixed subsidy price;
(4) Tax deduction: the United States adopts this method.
Fixed power system: also known as the renewable energy ratio system, the government regulates the amount of renewable energy power generation, and the market determines the price. The main methods include:
(1) Competition system: Britain, Ireland and France adopt this system method;
(2) Tradable green certificate system: Britain, Sweden, Belgium, Italy and Japan all adopt this system method.
The purpose of the two promotion systems is to form a protective market, through the power of the government to make renewable energy more investment-efficient in the electricity market, and their ultimate goal is to improve technology and reduce costs, so as to ensure that renewable energy can be combined in the free market in the future. Traditional energy competition.
The policy environment of world wind power
Generally speaking, there are generally three policy mechanisms for supporting wind power development in the world: one is to adopt a fixed purchase price mechanism, and there is no restriction on the number of wind power development; the other is to adopt a bidding mechanism, the government stipulates the installed capacity of wind power development, and the development is determined through bidding competition. The third is the quota system, that is, the government stipulates the quota ratio of renewable energy power in the total power consumption, and the power supply company completes the quota.
The government's incentive policy measures in the development of the new energy industry generally include various forms of subsidies, price concessions, tax reductions and exemptions, discounts or low-interest loans, etc. High-intensity incentive mechanism is one of the key measures to overcome development obstacles and promote industrial development.
1. Direct policies to support the development of the wind power industry The policy measures to support the development of the wind power industry can be divided into two categories: direct and indirect policy measures. Direct policy measures refer to those policies that directly affect the development goals of the local wind power industry; indirect policy measures are relatively macroscopic, and their main purpose is to provide a good development space and environment for the local wind power manufacturing industry.
(1) A certain localization rate is required
Require wind farms to use domestically produced wind turbines is a direct way to promote the localization of wind turbines. The policy generally stipulates that the localization rate must account for a certain proportion of the installed fan equipment. Such a policy requires wind turbine manufacturers who want to enter the local market to either transfer their production bases to the local area or purchase the parts and components needed for wind turbines from local companies.
(2) Preferential or incentive policies that encourage the use of local products
Preferential policies are adopted to encourage the use of a certain proportion of local products and localized production of wind turbine equipment, but such behavior is not mandatory. These incentives include: if local wind turbine products are selected in the project, the government will provide low-interest loans to developers; provide preferential tax incentives to companies that move their product manufacturing bases to the local area; or provide local wind power equipment To provide subsidies for electricity from wind farms.
(3) Tariff incentive policies
Encouraging the import of parts and components of wind turbine equipment rather than the complete system by controlling tariffs is another direct incentive policy. Compared with importing foreign-made wind turbine systems, this incentive policy allows them to pay lower tariffs for importing parts and components, thereby creating a good environment for companies that intend to manufacture or assemble wind turbine systems locally. However, this kind of policy may be challenged in the future, because this kind of policy will be seen as creating barriers to technical trade, violating the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO)-member states cannot set trade barriers.
(4) Tax incentive policies
The government can support the localization of the wind turbine industry through various tax incentive policies. First, tax incentives can be used to encourage local companies to get involved in the wind power industry, such as wind turbine manufacturing or research and development tax incentives. Or, reduce the sales tax or income tax for purchasers or sellers of wind turbine technology to strengthen international competition. Preferential tax policies can also be applied to domestic and foreign joint ventures to promote international cooperation and technology transfer in the field of wind power. In addition, tax deduction measures are also applicable to the labor cost of the wind power industry.
(5) Export assistance projects
The government can help the fan products produced by domestic enterprises expand the international market through export credit assistance. Such assistance can be in the form of a low-interest loan, or it can be a “tied aid” provided by the country where the wind turbine manufacturer is located to other countries that purchase technology.
(6) Certification and testing
The most fundamental way to improve the quality and credit rating of wind turbines of new wind power companies is to add them to the certification and testing system that meets international standards. There are many international standards for wind turbines currently in use. The most commonly used are the Danish certification system and the IS09000 certification system. Standards can help enhance users' confidence in unfamiliar products, and can also help users distinguish between the pros and cons of products. Successfully passing these internationally accepted certifications is essential for products to enter the international market.
(7) Research, development and demonstration project studies show that sustainable investment in wind turbine research and development is essential to the successful development of the local wind power industry. Private wind power companies and national scientific research institutes (such as national laboratories and universities) combined research and development is a very effective way. Before the newly developed domestic fan unit is officially put into commercial operation on a large scale, some demonstration projects and commercial pilot projects can be used to test the actual operation and reliability of the fan.
2. Indirect policies to promote the development of the wind power industry Indirect policy measures are relatively macroscopic, and the main purpose is to provide a good development space and environment for the local wind power manufacturing industry. The formulation and implementation of indirect policies can create a certain scale of wind power market, thereby cultivating first-class equipment manufacturers, and at the same time provide a stable policy environment for wind farm investors and wind power technology research and development.
Success in the domestic market is a prerequisite for domestic wind turbines to successfully enter the international market, and the government can also effectively promote local economic development through the development of the local wind power industry. A stable domestic wind power market with a certain scale is the fundamental condition for the continuous development of the domestic wind power industry. The series of policies discussed below are aimed at expanding the domestic wind power market.
(1) Electricity purchase law
Based on the existing experience, the electricity purchase law, or the fixed electricity price set to encourage the development of wind power, provides the most fundamental conditions for the successful development of the domestic wind power manufacturing industry, because the electricity purchase law provides the most direct way for the development of wind power projects. Stable and profitable market. The wind power price level and wind power price composition characteristics of the power purchase law vary from country to country. As long as the long-term benefits and certain marginal benefits are fully considered, and the design is appropriate, the power purchase method is of great value, because the power purchase method creates a long-term stable market environment for wind farm investors and encourages wind power companies to pay more attention to wind power. Long-term investment in technology research and development.
(2) Mandatory targets for renewable energy
The mandatory targets for renewable energy, also known as the renewable energy quota system, the mandatory market share of renewable energy, or the purchase obligation, are relatively new policy mechanisms implemented in some countries. The policy requires that the electricity generated from renewable energy sources must account for a certain proportion of the total power generation, and countries need to determine their own quotas based on their own market structure. Compared with the electricity purchase law (fixed electricity price policy), the implementation experience of the renewable energy mandatory target policy is still relatively small, so it is currently impossible to compare it with the effect of the fixed electricity price policy to evaluate whether this policy can promote the development of local wind power .
(3) Government auction or concession policy
The government directly signs long-term wind power purchase contracts with wind power developers is one of the ways to create a good market environment for wind power development. Because the government supports the development of wind power projects, it eliminates many uncertain factors in the development process, thus reducing the investment risk of wind power developers. However, this method requires the use of a government bidding system. Historically, such a bidding system will not bring long-term stability and profitability to the wind power market. This is partly due to the long-term bidding between bidders and project developers. Fierce competition between.
(4) Fiscal incentive policies have a variety of ways to encourage the development of renewable energy through fiscal means. For example, a portion of the funds can be allocated from the charges to non-renewable energy power generation companies, or directly from the energy bills of electricity consumers. A part of the funds (often referred to as system benefit charging) is used to support the development of renewable energy. However, if long-term power purchase contracts are not signed, in the process of encouraging the stable and large-scale development of the renewable energy market, compared with other preferential policies, this fiscal incentive policy can only play a complementary role.
(5) Tax incentive policies
Some governments use tax incentives to promote investment in renewable energy power generation, including tax relief for companies investing in wind power technology development, and property tax relief for landowners where wind turbines are located. At the same time, tax incentives are also applicable to wind power companies, which can be exempted from income tax or value-added tax. However, the tax incentive mechanism cannot replace the fixed electricity price policy and the mandatory target policy of renewable energy.
(6) Green power market The governments of some countries allow users to pay higher than ordinary electricity prices to purchase renewable energy power. Although the investment obtained through such a mechanism is very limited, these funds can still support higher-cost renewable energy power generation and encourage investment in new renewable energy power generation projects.
3. Analysis of wind power policies adopted by major countries
(1) The French government has adopted measures such as investment loans, tax reduction and exemption, guaranteed sales, and government pricing to support enterprises to invest in wind power and other renewable energy technology application projects.
(2) Germany's wind energy resources are far less abundant than France and the United Kingdom, but there is no doubt about the world's leading position in wind power development. In the 1980s, the German government funded a series of research projects; in 1991, Congress passed the mandatory power purchase law, which provided sufficient incentives for clean energy and established a market, and was able to participate in the competition of coal and nuclear power. Thanks to the efforts of environmentalists, the government has also set a goal of at least 25% of the electricity generated by wind power by 2025.
(3) The Danish wind power industry started in the 1980s, and now its wind turbines have dominated the global market. One of the reasons for the success of wind power is that each government has a very firm stand on the national energy plan, in order to reduce dependence on imported fuels and achieve sustainable development as much as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that wind power will meet about half of the electricity demand by 2030.
(4) Japan's wind power generation is developing rapidly, and the installed capacity has been among the top in the world. Japan's new energy policy stipulates that Japanese power companies are obliged to expand the use of renewable energy. One is to increase the equipment to generate electricity by themselves, and the other is to purchase from other power companies. There are certain indicators every year.
(5) India is a pioneer in developing countries. The initial impetus for the development of wind power came from the guidance of the Ministry of Unconventional Energy (MNES) to encourage energy diversification. In order to find the most favorable location, MNES established a network of wind speed measurement stations across the country. Provide investors with a variety of economic benefits such as investment cost depreciation and tax exemption. In the tax exemption plan launched in 2002, it is stipulated that the income of wind farms in the first 10 years can enjoy 100% tax exemption. In addition, the provinces also formulate their own preferential policies.