As of 2006, there are 435 nuclear reactors in operation worldwide, and more than 29 are under construction. The United States operates the most with 103 seats. France is next with 59 seats. Japan has 55 (more than one under construction) and Russia has 31 (more than seven under construction).
Among the 30 countries that have nuclear power generation, the share of nuclear power generation varies greatly from France, which accounts for 78%, to Belgium, which accounts for 54%, South Korea, 39%, Switzerland, 37%, Japan, 30%, and the United States, 19%. South Africa accounted for 4% and China accounted for 2%.
The expansion of nuclear power plants is now concentrated in Asia, and 15 of the 29 under construction by the end of 2006 were in Asia. Of the 36 nuclear reactors recently built, 26 have been connected to the grid in Asia. The proportion of nuclear power generation in India is now less than 3%, but by the end of 2006, it had a quarter of the nuclear power plants under construction and 7 of the 29 nuclear power plants under construction. India plans to increase nuclear power by 8 times by 2022, reaching 10% of its electricity supply; by 2052, it will increase by 75 times, reaching 26% of its electricity supply. A 75-fold increase means an average annual growth rate of 9.4%, which is the same as the global average growth rate from 1970 to 2004.
1. The development of nuclear energy in the world
The U.S. has gone from an advocate of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership to a practitioner
The "Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program" (GNEP) is the United States' long-term nuclear energy strategy. It aims to promote civilian nuclear energy technology to the world and finally find a way to reprocess nuclear waste so that the processed nuclear waste cannot be used to make nuclear weapons.
In order to cooperate with the GNEP plan, the U.S. Department of Energy provided a total of 16 million U.S. dollars to the 4 selected companies for GNEP technology and support research; and through providing 100,000 U.S. dollars in assistance to 38 universities to cultivate and develop The engineers and scientists necessary for a generation of nuclear energy.
Russia cooperates with nuclear material powers to occupy the commanding heights
Russia and Australia signed a historic nuclear material trade agreement in Sydney. According to this agreement, uranium produced in Australia can be used by Russian nuclear power plants for civilian purposes, and the uranium can also be reprocessed by Russian nuclear energy companies.
Australia's uranium reserves rank first in the world, while Russia's enriched uranium production capacity is the world's leader. This agreement means that the world's leader in nuclear energy has been produced.
According to relevant Russian officials, Russia, as the ninth country in the world with uranium reserves, has always hoped to purchase uranium ore from Australia, a country with the largest natural uranium reserves in the world. However, the laws of both countries previously prohibited this trade.
Uranium supply will continue to be tight
The latest report of the World Nuclear Energy Conference also pointed out that the world is vigorously advancing the construction of nuclear power plants due to rising crude oil prices and the adoption of countermeasures to the greenhouse effect. Under such circumstances, there may be fierce competition among countries for the rights and interests of uranium.
According to the Japan Broadcasting Association and other media citing conference reports, as the United States, Russia and other countries are vigorously constructing nuclear power plants, by 2015, there is likely to be a shortage of 6,000 tons of natural uranium, and the supply of uranium will continue to be tight.
The proportion of nuclear power generation in India is now less than 3%, but India plans to increase by 8 times by 2022, reaching 10% of its electricity supply; by 2052, it will increase by 75 times, reaching 26% of its electricity supply.
Russia has 31 nuclear reactors in operation, 5 are under construction, and there is a large capacity expansion plan.
Japan has 55 nuclear reactors in operation and one is under construction, and plans to increase the share of nuclear power generation from 30% in 2006 to more than 40% in the next 10 years. South Korea commissioned its 20th nuclear reactor in 2006 and nuclear power generation has been supplied. 39% of its electricity.
There are a total of 166 nuclear reactors in operation in Europe and 6 are under construction. However, there are several countries that ban nuclear energy, such as Austria, Italy, Denmark and Ireland, and several countries such as Germany and Belgium have also begun to ban nuclear energy.
Finland, France, Bulgaria and Ukraine also have nuclear energy expansion plans.
Britain has 19 nuclear reactors in operation, many of which are quite old and may invest in new nuclear power plants.
The United States has 103 nuclear reactors, which provide 19% of the electricity. Three-quarters of US nuclear reactors have undergone technological updates.
2. China's nuclear energy development status and prospects
(1) China's nuclear energy development status
China's nuclear industry began to be established in the mid-1950s and has now formed a relatively complete nuclear industry system. Nuclear power began to take off in the early 1980s. China’s self-designed and built Qinshan 300,000-kilowatt pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant officially started construction in March 1985 and was connected to the grid for power generation in December 1991. The two 900,000 kilowatt units of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, which was constructed using foreign capital and imported complete sets of equipment, started construction in August 1987 and put into commercial operation in 1994. During the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, 4 nuclear power projects and 8 generating units started construction, with a total installed capacity of 6.6 million kilowatts. They are: two 600,000 kilowatt pressurized water reactor units for the Qinshan Phase II nuclear power plant, which started construction in June 1996, and two 1 million kilowatt pressurized water reactor units for the Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant, which started construction in May 1997, June 1998 Construction of two 700,000-kilowatt heavy water reactor units for the Qinshan Phase III nuclear power plant has started, and all three projects are scheduled to be completed and put into operation in 2003; construction of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station started in October 1999 and two 1 million-kilowatt pressurized water reactor units It is expected to be completed and put into operation in 2005.
Since nuclear power started in the early 1980s, a lot of work has been done in the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, preliminary preparations, localization, the establishment of relevant regulations and management systems, etc., and considerable progress has been made, laying a foundation for future development. Base.
Through the construction of 11 units in 6 nuclear power projects, China has now formed a basic supporting nuclear power and nuclear fuel research and development industrial system; it has accumulated a set of valuable experience in scientific research, design, construction and operation; it has cultivated and created a complete professional team. With considerable strength in scientific research, design and engineering construction teams, a number of large-scale experimental benches have been established, and a large number of scientific research and design research have been carried out. Through the implementation of projects under construction, we have mastered more design materials, accumulated experience in engineering construction and project management of large nuclear power plants, and have greatly improved the localization capabilities.
In the nuclear fuel cycle industry, since the mid-1950s, China has gradually established a relatively complete nuclear fuel cycle system. With the development of the nuclear power industry, the nuclear fuel industry has been further improved, and a complete nuclear fuel cycle has initially formed from uranium geological prospecting, uranium mining and smelting uranium isotope separation, nuclear fuel element manufacturing, spent fuel post-processing to nuclear waste treatment and disposal. Industrial system.
① Geological survey has submitted reliable uranium resource reserves for the country.
②Uranium mining and metallurgy has initially formed a production pattern based on in-situ leaching, heap leaching and in-situ blasting leaching processes, which greatly reduced the cost of uranium mining and metallurgy and increased the utilization rate of uranium resources.
③Uranium isotope separation has realized the transition from diffusion method to centrifugal method, and the production capacity of uranium isotope separation can meet the needs of China's nuclear power development.
④The nuclear fuel assembly production line has provided qualified fuel assemblies for nuclear power plants. The domestic production of PWR nuclear fuel assemblies with three capacity levels of 300,000, 600,000 and 1 million kilowatts has basically been realized. The heavy water reactor nuclear fuel assembly production line is also under construction.
⑤The treatment and disposal of medium and low-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes have begun. The disposal site for medium and low-level radioactive wastes has been built and put into operation. The scientific research work of high-level radioactive waste treatment has made great progress.
In addition, in terms of nuclear energy technology development, China has carried out a lot of work in advanced pressurized water reactors, fast breeder reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, and low-temperature heating reactors. China currently has four nuclear reactors under construction, and plans to expand it nearly five times by 2020, which will enable nuclear power generation to account for 4% of total electricity.
(2) China's nuclear energy development prospects
China attaches great importance to the research and utilization of nuclear energy. As early as the end of the 1960s, China successfully developed atomic and hydrogen bombs, laying a solid foundation for China's nuclear energy development. The largest controlled nuclear fusion experimental device "China Circulator One", designed and developed by China itself, has been built in Leshan, Sichuan Province and successfully launched in September 1984. It marks China's experiment on controlled nuclear fusion. Means have been developed and improved again. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear power plant demonstration project of Huaneng Shandong Shidaowan Nuclear Power Plant, which began construction in 2008, is the first nuclear power plant in China to use a fourth-generation nuclear reactor and will be put into operation in November 2013.
In early October 2007, with the approval of the State Council, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Special Plan for China's Nuclear Power Development (2005-2020). According to the plan, in the next 13 years, China will add 23 million kilowatts of nuclear power plants into operation. This indicates that China's nuclear power development has entered a new stage.
The "Plan" consists of five parts. The first part summarizes the development history and status quo of China's foreign nuclear power. The second part analyzes and studies the significance of China's development of nuclear power. The third part puts forward the guiding ideology, policy and goal of China's nuclear power development. The fourth part elaborates on China's nuclear power development technology route, independent development strategy, site development and protection of nuclear power construction project layout and schedule, nuclear fuel cycle plan, and nuclear power investment estimates. The last part describes in detail the safeguard measures and policy arrangements for the implementation of the plan.
The “Planning” puts forward that China’s nuclear power development guiding ideology and policy are: unify technical lines, pay attention to safety and economy, adhere to the principle of self-centeredness, cooperate with China and foreign countries, and carry out digestion, absorption and re-innovation through the introduction of advanced foreign technologies. The autonomy of nuclear power plant engineering design, equipment manufacturing, engineering construction and operation management has formed the comprehensive capability of building large-scale advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants of China's own brand in batches. The development goal is: by 2020, the installed capacity of nuclear power operations will reach 40 million kilowatts, and 18 million kilowatts of projects under construction will be carried over to 2020 for subsequent construction. The proportion of nuclear power in the total installed power capacity has increased from less than 2% to 4%, and the annual nuclear power generation capacity will reach 260-280 billion kilowatt-hours.
Pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant
The "Plan" requires that by 2020, on the basis of introducing, digesting and absorbing a new generation of million-kilowatt PWR nuclear power plant engineering design and equipment manufacturing technology, re-innovation, realization of autonomy, and full control of advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power Technology, cultivate localization capabilities, and form the ability to build Chinese-brand nuclear power plants on a larger scale. The selection and protection of nuclear power plant sites must be strictly reviewed and approved in accordance with the requirements of nuclear power plant sites and nuclear power development plans, and work shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of nuclear power development. All regions and departments should rationally arrange nuclear power projects and schedules to ensure the healthy and orderly development of China's nuclear power industry.
In order to ensure the smooth implementation of the content of the plan, the "Plan" puts forward the following safeguards and policy arrangements: Nuclear power companies should establish and improve modern property rights systems in accordance with the overall requirements of the socialist market economy, standardize corporate governance structures, and promote system reforms and mechanism innovations. ; Incorporate nuclear power equipment manufacturing and key technologies into the national major equipment localization plan to form a complete set of equipment capabilities; strengthen the government’s nuclear power safety supervision work in accordance with the law, strengthen safety law enforcement and supervision; strengthen the construction of the nuclear emergency system, formulate accident prevention and handling measures, and establish and Maintain an effective defense system against radiation hazards; establish and improve a nuclear power professional operation and technical service system, and comprehensively improve the safety and stable operation of nuclear power plants; vigorously strengthen the training of various talents, increase remuneration, and make a good talent reserve; to the country The determined nuclear power autonomy relying project and China's enterprises undertaking nuclear power equipment manufacturing tasks implement tax incentives and preferential investment policies.
At present, some of the contents of the "Plan" have been implemented, and various regions and departments are working as planned. It is foreseeable that with the implementation of the "Plan", China's nuclear power industry will enter a new stage of development, the independent innovation capability of nuclear power will be improved, and the independent manufacturing of nuclear power equipment will improve the level of China's equipment manufacturing industry, which is a viable opportunity for China's economy and society. Make greater contributions to sustainable development.
According to the "Plan", the site selection of the newly-increased 23 million kilowatt nuclear power plant will be selected from coastal cities such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Fujian, etc., and 13 priorities have been identified in these provinces and cities recently. For the site selected, the state considers arranging for the construction of a nuclear power plant in each coastal province (region) that does not have nuclear power.
According to the "Plan", based on the roughly estimated scale of nuclear power construction newly started and put into production within 15 years, the total funding requirement for nuclear power project construction is about 450 billion yuan. The financing of these funds, in principle, operates in the form of self-raised capital by enterprises and commercial loans provided by banks.
Through the construction of these nuclear power plants, China will not only achieve the goal of 40 million kilowatts of nuclear power operating installed capacity in 2020, but also 18 million kilowatts of projects under construction will be carried over to subsequent construction in 2020. By 2050, according to optimistic estimates, China’s installed nuclear power capacity will reach 360 million kilowatts, accounting for about 30% of China’s total installed power capacity. The strategic route of China's nuclear power development is: the near-term development of thermal neutron reactor nuclear power plants; in order to make full use of uranium resources, adopt the technical route of uranium-plutonium cycle, develop fast breeder reactor nuclear power plants in the medium-term; develop fusion reactor nuclear power plants in the long-term, thus basically " "Always" solve the contradiction in energy demand.
China's energy demand is increasing greatly, and the demand for every kind of energy is growing, including nuclear power generation. There are four nuclear reactors under construction, and plans to expand nearly five times by 2020. Because China is growing rapidly, this will allow nuclear power generation to account for 4% of total electricity.