Analysis on the development of wind energy resources in China

Although the utilization of wind energy in our country has a long history of more than 2,000 years, it is mainly used for wind water lifting and ships, and its development is very slow. In the mid-1950s, small modern wind pumps and power generation devices were developed. In the 1960s, some wind turbines began to be put into small batch production. At the end of the 1970s, my country's wind energy utilization research entered a new stage of development, mainly small wind turbines and wind water pumps. Since the 1980s, under the support of national policies, my country's wind power industry has developed rapidly. Data show that in 2008, the newly installed wind power capacity was 6.3 million kilowatts, and the total installed capacity reached 12.21 million kilowatts, making it the fourth largest wind power country in the world after the United States, Germany, and Spain. Wind power equipment manufacturers have grown from more than 30 in 2007 to more than 70 in 2008, more than doubled.

my country's grid-connected wind power began to develop in the 1980s. Since 1983, Shandong introduced three Danish Vesta55kW wind turbines, and started the test and demonstration of grid-connected wind power technology. During the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" and "Eighth Five-Year Plan" period, the State Planning Commission and the State Science and Technology Commission have set out major projects for the development of grid-connected wind turbines. In 1994, the newly-added installed capacity of wind power nationwide was 12.9MW. In 2003, the installed capacity of wind power reached 100MW for the first time, with a cumulative total of 570MW. Especially during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, under the promotion of relevant national preferential policies and the "Double Processing and Full Time" of the State Economic and Trade Commission, the national wind power installed capacity has developed rapidly. During 1994-1999, the construction of 21 wind farms across the country has entered the industrialization stage during these six years. In the subsequent development, it can keep up with the development pace of international large and medium-sized wind turbines in time. For example, Germany began to install 500kW wind turbines in 1993, and my country's Xinjiang Dabancheng No. 2 Field took the lead in installing four 500kW wind turbines in China in 1993. Especially in the four years of the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, a total of 225MW was installed, accounting for 85.7% of the country's total installed wind power capacity. During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, wind power developed very rapidly. The total installed capacity increased from 350,000 kilowatts in 2000 to 2.6 million kilowatts in 2006, with an average annual growth rate of 30%. The installed capacity of wind power ranked 10th in the world in 2004 and rose to 6th in the world by the end of 2006. From 2006 to 2007, the cumulative installed wind power capacity rose from sixth to fifth; from 2006 to 2007, the newly added wind power installed capacity rose from fifth to third. According to relevant plans, my country's installed wind power capacity will reach 5GW in 2010, 10GW in 2015, and 30GW in 2020.

According to the draft of the 2009 "New Energy Industry Revitalization Plan", my country strives for more than ten years to form several tens of millions of kilowatts of wind power bases in Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Jiangsu, Jilin and other places, and strive to achieve wind power by 2020 The installed capacity is about 100 million kilowatts. This means that my country's wind power industry has thus entered a period of rapid development. At present, the National Development and Reform Commission has made a general survey and planning of national wind resources, and has determined the main targets for wind power generation. The general idea is to build a batch of large-scale power plants of more than 100,000 kilowatts in the areas rich in wind resources in the northeast, northern north, northwest, and southeast coasts, and in Zhangjiakou, Bashang, Jiangsu coastal areas, Gansu, and Hexi corridor areas where wind resources are relatively concentrated. Build large-scale power plants of more than one million kilowatts. In the specific implementation process, the government will issue relevant policies to tilt wind power investment.

According to the industry magazine "Wind Energy World", the hottest renewable energy in the Chinese market, such as wind energy, solar energy and other industries, wind energy resources are more renewable, inexhaustible, non-polluting, etc., and have high comprehensive social benefits. Moreover, the development of wind power technology is the most mature and the lowest cost. According to the "Eleventh Five-Year" national wind power development plan, the national wind power installed capacity will reach 5 million kilowatts in 2010, and the national wind power installed capacity will reach 30 million kilowatts in 2020. At the end of 2006, there were about 91 wind farms built and under construction nationwide, with a total installed capacity of only 2.6 million kilowatts. It can be seen that the fan market has an attractive prospect and broad development space.

1. Wind water lifter

Wind water lifter
(1) Current status of the industry. The southeast coastal areas of my country are rich in wind energy resources, with an average annual wind speed of 4m/s. The township industry in these areas has developed rapidly, consumes a large amount of electricity, is poor in conventional energy sources, and suffers from severe power shortages in some areas where the power grid is accessible. In order to meet the needs of low-lift and large-flow water-lifting operations such as farm irrigation, aquaculture, and salt production in salt farms, local users have already used some low-lift wind-powered water-lifting devices. For example, the Putian area of ​​Fujian Province uses wind power to extract water to make salt, the suburbs of Tianjin city uses wind energy to arrange and raise seedlings, and the wind-air pump farmland irrigation in Xintai City, Shandong Province has achieved certain economic benefits. The promotion and application of wind pumping units in the above-mentioned areas is of great significance to the development of agriculture, fishery and sideline production. On the other hand, in areas with good inland wind energy resources, such as northern Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Qinghai, the annual average wind speed is 4-6m/s, and the cumulative wind speed of 3-20m/s is 4000-5000h/year. This is a vast grassland special zone with a scattered population and difficult access to the power grid. The use of deep well wind pumping units to provide drinking water for herders and livestock or to irrigate a small area of ​​grassland has obvious social benefits for improving the living and production conditions of local herders. In addition, Gansu, northern Xinjiang and the lower Songhua River are also areas with abundant wind energy, which are suitable for the development of wind pumping.

(2) Product type. In terms of the product varieties of wind pumping units, my country has basically formed two series of southern low-lift large-flow wind pumping units and northern high-lift small-flow wind pumping units, with about a dozen product models. After strict production evaluation and operation and many years of practical application, the product quality of these units is basically reliable, and some units have reached or are in a leading position in the world. In recent years, my country's low-lift wind pumping units have been exported to countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Therefore, my country's existing wind-driven water pump products can be gradually promoted and used at home and abroad.

(3) Development trend. In the future, my country's demand for wind-driven water pumps will continue to increase gradually, and the predicted development trends are as follows. The conversion of dry fields to paddy fields in the Sanjiang Plain in Heilongjiang requires a wind pumping unit with a lift of 5m and a flow rate greater than 30m³/h. According to market demand forecasts, this model can be developed by 2010 by 1,500 units. The plain areas of Hebei and Shandong provinces need small household wind pumping units with a lift of 15-30m, and 1,500 units can be developed by 2010. In the southeast coastal areas, salt production, farmland irrigation and irrigation, and aquaculture require low-lift and large-flow wind-powered water pumping units, and 1,500 units can be developed by 2010. Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu and other provinces and regions need high-lift and small-flow wind pumping units to provide drinking water for humans and livestock and irrigation water for small areas of grassland in the grassland special zone. By 2010, 1,500 units can be developed.

From the perspective of the classification of wind pumps, the development trend of main products and technologies: ① Low-lift and large-flow wind pumps mostly use rotary pumps to extract surface water and shallow groundwater. ②High-lift and small-flow wind pumps mostly use reciprocating pumps to extract deep groundwater. ③A micro drip irrigation system of the wind pump. ④Wind turbine-air pump water lift unit. ⑤Wind development machine-electric pump water lifting system.

2. Small wind turbine

Small wind turbine
(1) Current status of the industry. my country has taken small-scale wind power generation as one of the measures to realize rural electrification since the early 1980s, mainly researching, developing, and demonstrating the application of small-scale charging wind power generators for farmers to use. At present, the technology of units below 1kw has been mature and extensively promoted, forming an annual production capacity of 10,000 units. In the past 10 years, 5,000 to 8,000 units have been sold domestically each year, and more than 100 units have been exported abroad. At present, small wind turbines of 100, 150, 200, 300 and 500w and 1, 2, 5 and 10kw can be mass-produced. The annual production capacity is more than 30,000 units, and the largest sales volume is 100~300w products. In remote areas where the power grid cannot be reached, about 600,000 residents use wind energy to achieve electrification. As of 1999, my country has produced a total of 185,700 small wind turbines, ranking first in the world.

(2) Development trend.
①The power changes from small to large. Household units have been increased from 50, 100w to 300, 500w to meet the needs of electrical appliances such as color TVs, refrigerators and washing machines.
②Expand from one household to one power supply network. Use larger power units or several small units in parallel to supply power to several households or a village.
③Development from single wind power generation to multi-energy complementation, namely "wind-photovoltaic" complementation, "wind turbine-diesel engine" complementation and "wind-photovoltaic-diesel" complementation.
④The scope of application has been gradually expanded, from household electricity to communications and meteorological departments, military frontier posts, roads and railways, etc.

3. The localization of large-scale wind turbines and foreign units

Large wind turbine
(1) Large wind turbines. The research and manufacturing of large-scale wind turbines in my country is accelerating development. Yituo-made Wind Power Equipment Co., Ltd. established by China YTO Group Co., Ltd. and Spanish Electric Power Company Made Renewable Energy Co., Ltd., and Xi’an Weide Wind Power Equipment Co., Ltd. established by Xi’an Aero Engine Co., Ltd. and Nordex Co., Ltd. The company has produced 1 660kw and 600kw main generators respectively, and has been installed in Liaoning Yingkou Wind Farm for grid-connected power generation operation. The localization rate of these two units reached 40%. In addition, Zhejiang Yunda Wind Power Equipment Factory has produced 4 sets of 250kw wind turbines based on the production of 200kw wind turbines, which are installed in Guangdong Nanao Wind Farm. This is the best operating condition in my country with independent intellectual property rights. unit.

(2) Localization of foreign units. In my country's investment in wind farm construction, unit equipment accounts for about 70%. Realizing the localization of equipment and reducing engineering costs are the needs of large-scale wind farm development. However, the development of prototypes and the formation of products require a lot of investment. The relevant departments have developed two types of 200kw prototypes, but they will not be commercialized in the future. The leading products on the market have developed to 600kw units. In order to keep up with the world's technological development level, the plan of introducing advanced and mature foreign technologies and gradually realizing localization through digestion and absorption is in line with my country's national conditions. The main components of large-scale wind turbines are manufactured in China, and their cost can be reduced by 20% to 30% compared with imported units. Therefore, localization is an inevitable trend in the development of large-scale wind turbines in my country. The localization of large-scale wind turbines in China started from 250~300kw units and developed to 600kw. The tower can be manufactured in China, and the generator and wheel hub have also been trial-produced in China. The above components are installed on the imported wind generator for evaluation. If the quality reaches the standard of the original machine, it can replace the imported parts. Other parts such as gearbox, main shaft, brake disc and windward mechanism can replace imported parts after successful domestic trial production. According to my country's production level and technical capabilities, the localization of large-scale wind turbines is completely feasible.

There are two main ways to localize 600kw units. One is to pay a technology transfer fee to purchase a full set of manufacturing technology, and gradually improve and provide commercial products through independent development. The other is to purchase a batch of mature wind turbines through a combination of technology and trade, and at the same time introduce manufacturing technology to form a Sino-foreign joint venture company to produce in China in strict accordance with the original component standards, and gradually increase the localization rate of components.

4. The progress of wind farm construction

Wind farm construction
(1) The number of wind farms continues to increase, and the installed capacity continues to increase. Judging from the history of wind farm construction in my country, after the first wind farm funded by the Ministry of Aviation and the Shandong Provincial Planning Commission to generate electricity in Rongcheng, Shandong in April 1986, units across the country have been introduced to build wind farms, and the installed capacity has increased year by year. In 1990, the cumulative installed capacity was 4000kw, and the largest single unit capacity was 200kw; in 1993, the cumulative installed capacity was 14,500kw, and the maximum single unit was 500kw; in 1995, the cumulative installed capacity was 3.75kw; by the end of 1997, there were 433 installed wind farms nationwide, with a capacity of 166,700kw. The maximum single machine is 600kw; in 1998, the total installed capacity reached 224,000 kw; in 1999, it reached 262,400 kw.

(2) The single unit capacity of wind turbines is increasing year by year. There are two main types of domestically-produced units installed in wind farms: one is a prototype of scientific and technological breakthroughs or several units that are subsequently produced, which need to be improved due to technical and quality problems; the other is produced in cooperation with foreign manufacturers with some components Substituting domestically produced substitutes can basically operate normally. Most of the imported units are relatively mature commercial units with high reliability. This type of unit mainly includes variable pitch regulation and constant pitch stall regulation. The single unit capacity was 150~300kw before 1996. Later installations were mainly 600kw class unit.