Hydrogen energy is regarded as the most promising clean energy in the 21st century. Human beings have been interested in the application of hydrogen energy since 200 years ago. Up to now, the utilization of hydrogen energy has made great progress.
Since the United States began to develop liquid hydrogen engines in 1965, various types of jet and rocket engines have been successfully developed. Since the 1970s, hydrogen energy research has been widely carried out in many countries and regions in the world. The U.S. space shuttle has successfully used liquid hydrogen as fuel. China's Long March 2 and 3 also use liquid hydrogen as fuel. The use of liquid hydrogen instead of diesel for the development of railway locomotives or general automobiles is also very active. Hydrogen vehicles running on hydrogen fuel and hydrogen fuel cells are also an important means of communicating between the power system and the hydrogen energy system. There has been fierce competition in the commercialization of hydrogen energy vehicles among different countries in the world such as Iceland, China, Germany, Japan and the United States. While other forms of utilization are possible (e.g. heating, cooking, power generation, aircraft, locomotives), the application of hydrogen energy in cars, trucks, buses, taxis, motorcycles and commercial ships is already in focus.
In May 2001, the United States proposed the development of hydrogen energy in its "National Energy Policy Report", and in November, the Ministry of Energy held a "National Hydrogen Energy Development Outlook" seminar. In February 2002, a report titled "Vision to 2030 for the United States' Transition to a Hydrogen Economy" was formed, and the "National Hydrogen Energy Development Roadmap" was released in November of the same year. These two reports believe that hydrogen energy is the future direction of energy development in the United States, and the United States should take the path of economic development based on hydrogen energy. In January 2003, the United States formally proposed to implement the "National Hydrogen Fuel Research Plan", investing 1.2 billion US dollars, focusing on the research on technologies related to hydrogen production, storage and transportation, in order to promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology and related infrastructure technologies in 2015. before commercial application.
In February 2004, the US Department of Energy issued the Action Plan for Research, Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen Energy Technology. The plan sets out the steps for the development of hydrogen energy and the timetable for the transition to hydrogen energy, and defines the specific content and goals of technical research, development and demonstration in the initial stage of developing hydrogen energy, as well as relevant follow-up actions. The introduction of this plan is another major move by the United States to promote the development of hydrogen energy.
Japan and the EU are not far behind. In Japan, fuel cell technology is considered to be the key technology to promote the development of hydrogen energy. Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi even emphasized: "Fuel cells are the key to opening the door to the era of hydrogen energy." In January 2001, the "Fuel Cell Practical Strategy Research Association" report of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan put forward guidelines to guide the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology. The National Action Program has clearly formulated the goal of realizing the practical use of fuel cells in stages. In order to achieve this strategic goal, the Japanese government plans to invest 11 billion US dollars in research and development to make the total installed capacity of fuel cells reach 2.2 million kilowatts by 2010. 15 million vehicles, accounting for 20% of the auto market. In the "New Industry Creation Strategy" announced by Japan in 2004, fuel cells are also listed as a new industry that will be the core of Japan's industrial competitiveness in the future.
In October 2002, the European Union established an advanced research group on "hydrogen fuel and fuel cell technology". In June 2004, the European Union put forward the report "Hydrogen Fuel Economy - A Bridge to Sustainable Energy", which specifically analyzed the good economic and social prospects of hydrogen fuel. The EU attaches great importance to the research on hydrogen energy and fuel cells. In the 6th EU framework research plan from 2002 to 2006, the investment in this area is 25-30 million euros, which is doubled compared with the 5th framework plan. The relevant investment in member countries has increased to varying degrees.
China invested in hydrogen energy research earlier, and the research and development of hydrogen energy can be traced back to the early 1960s. In order to develop the country's aerospace industry, Chinese scientists focused on the production of liquid hydrogen as rocket fuel and the development of H2/O2 fuel cells. Much and efficient work has been done with the development. The development of hydrogen as an energy carrier and new energy systems began in the 1970s. The Ministry of Science and Technology has hydrogen energy projects in the scientific and technological plans since the "Seventh Five-Year Plan", and has invested a lot in the "Tenth Five-Year Plan". In the "863" and "973" plans, hydrogen energy is regarded as a key research field. In the "800 million electric vehicle special", fuel cells accounted for 300 million. At the "Second International (Beijing) Hydrogen Energy Forum" held in May 2004, China's self-developed fuel cell vehicle was unveiled together with Germany's fuel cell bus, which aroused widespread attention from outside China, which marked China's The hydrogen energy application technology has reached the international advanced level. In order to further develop hydrogen energy and promote the development of hydrogen energy utilization, hydrogen energy technology has been included in the "Tenth Five-Year Plan for Science and Technology Development and the 2015 Vision Plan (Energy Field)".
Hydrogen fuel cell technology has always been considered to be the ultimate solution to the future human energy crisis by utilizing hydrogen energy. Shanghai has always been an important base for the research and development and application of hydrogen fuel cells in China, including SAIC, Shanghai Shenli, Tongji University and other enterprises and universities, which have also been engaged in the research and development of hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen energy vehicles. With the rapid development of China's economy, the automobile industry has become one of China's pillar industries. In 2007, China has become the world's third largest automobile producer and second largest automobile market. At the same time, automobile fuel consumption also reached 80 million tons, accounting for about 1/4 of China's total oil demand. In today's increasingly tight energy supply, the development of new energy vehicles is imminent. Using hydrogen energy as a fuel for cars is undoubtedly the best choice.