In order to compete for the fuel cell vehicle market in the future, automobile manufacturers in various countries are competing to develop their own fuel cell vehicle products. In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States first used fuel cells in the aerospace field as the main power source for the space shuttle. Since then, the United States and other countries have turned the research of fuel cells to civilian power generation and as a power source for automobiles and submarines. The world's major automobile companies have also invested more manpower and material resources to carry out the development and research of fuel cell electric vehicles. In North America, major automobile companies have joined the International Fuel Cell Alliance, which is supported by the US government, and have undertaken respective tasks to produce vehicles powered by new fuel cells. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors Corporation of the United States has launched a passenger car powered by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFO, also known as an ion exchange membrane fuel cell or solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell) and a battery. Ford Motor Company of the United States has developed a new type of fuel cell, which uses hydrogen extracted from gasoline. The fuel utilization efficiency of this fuel cell is double that of an internal combustion engine, while the emission of pollutants is only 5% of that of an internal combustion engine. .

Fuel cell vehicles

Ballard Automotive, a global leader in PEMFC fuel cell technology, has been developing and manufacturing fuel cell products since 1983. In 1992, with the support of the government, Ballard developed an 88kW PEMFC power system for the transport vehicle, and loaded it for testing and demonstration. In 1993, Ballard launched the world's first electric bus prototype using fuel cells, equipped with a 05kW-class PEMFC fuel cell stack, capable of carrying 20 passengers. The car uses hydrogen as fuel and uses a carbon adsorption system for storage. , Under the general urban bus conditions, it can run continuously for 480km.

Ballard fuel cells bus

As early as 1994, DaimlerChrysler developed the fuel cell vehicle "NECAR 1", followed by its sister model "NECAR 2". At the Frankfurt Motor Show in the fall of 1997, DaimlerChrysler exhibited the "NECAR 3". Compared with the previous two generations of models, "NECAR3" has made great progress in technology. It is powered by two 25kW fuel cell stacks, with a power density of 1000W/L. It is the world's first fuel cell vehicle using a methanol reforming hydrogen production device. Within 2s of stepping on the accelerator pedal, 90% of the system power can be obtained. Its driving power is the same as conventional petrol and diesel cars of the same class. The car can travel about 402.25km with a full tank of methanol (40L), with no tailpipe emissions, no nitrogen oxides or soot particles, and due to the high efficiency of the fuel cell stack, CO2 emissions are far lower than diesel car. In 1999, DaimlerChrysler Automobiles and Ford Motor Company jointly developed the "NECAR 4" fuel cell electric vehicle using liquid hydrogen as fuel. development stage. In 2000, DaimlerChrysler announced that it had developed methanol fuel cell vehicles "NECAR 5" and "Jeep Commander 2". The NECAR5 was developed based on the Mercedes-Benz A-Class model, and the methanol-modified form is also based on the Mercedes-Benz ACLASS model, which is the follow-up product of the "NECAR 3" developed in 1997. In the race to develop fuel cell vehicles, ZemlerChrysler has taken the lead.

Fuel cell vehicle "NECAR"

In January 2011, the three fuel cell prototype vehicles developed by Mercedes-Benz completed the pioneering work of traveling across four continents, 14 countries, and the earth for one week. In addition, Mercedes-Benz has also put 36 hydrogen fuel cell buses into trial operation in some major countries and regions in the world, and has collected operating data of 2 million km. The current hydrogen fuel cell bus consumes 50% less fuel than earlier products, and has significantly improved performance and driving range. Germany has built 1,000 hydrogen refueling stations in 2015 to achieve large-scale commercialization of fuel cell-powered vehicles. It is expected that by 2020, Germany will have 1 million electric vehicles and 500,000 fuel cell vehicles put into use.

Japan developed a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) as early as 1981, and then developed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In Japan, Toyota is leading the way in the development of fuel cell systems. Toyota's goal is to develop a fuel cell that has an energy conversion efficiency 2.5 times that of a conventional gasoline engine and can be refueled as easily as existing internal combustion engine vehicles. Toyota Motor Corporation used its own unique fuel cell technology to trial-produce two types of fuel cell prototypes. One is to use special alloy materials for hydrogen storage; the other is to use methanol as fuel to complete the whole process of converting methanol into hydrogen fuel on the car. Toyota's fuel cell version of the RAV4 model uses a 25kW fuel cell stack and a hybrid device of nickel-metal hydride batteries. The car's top speed can reach 128.72km per hour, and the 50L methanol fuel tank can provide a range of 500km after one filling.

molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)

On December 15, 2014, Toyota released the world's first mass-produced hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "Mirai" (meaning "future"), which was first listed in Japan. The car has a maximum power of 104kW (152hp) and a maximum torque of 335Nm. At the New York International Auto Show, Toyota's Mirai hydrogen fuel cell vehicle was dubbed the 2016 global "green car." Mirai uses liquid hydrogen as a power source, which is stored in a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank located in the rear half of the body. The high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks of polyamide and light metal used by Mirai can withstand a pressure of 70MPa and are placed on the front and rear of the rear axle, respectively. The process of adding liquid hydrogen is similar to filling gasoline or diesel in conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and there are standards. It takes 3 to 5 minutes to fill the Mirai's hydrogen storage tank. Under the J8 operating condition, the Mirai's hydrogen storage can support a cruising range of 700km. After decompression, the liquid hydrogen enters the fuel cell located under the passenger compartment, and the hydrogen atoms react on the cathode of the fuel cell, releasing electrons to generate electricity. Thereby driving the wheels.

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "Mirai"

On March 10, 2016, Honda held a press conference for the hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicle "CLARITY FUEL CELL" in Japan, officially announcing that the fuel cell vehicle named "CLARITY FUEL CEL" began to be listed in the form of rental and sale, and then Launched in the European and North American markets in the second half of 2016. The CLARITY FUEL CELL is equipped with a high-pressure hydrogen tank with a pressure of 70MPa and a capacity of 141L. The car has a driving range of up to 700km after being filled with fuel once, and can be filled with fuel within 3 minutes, which is the same as that of conventional internal combustion engine models. standard. The model has now started accepting reservations, and the price of the five-seat model is about 440,000 yuan, and the price of the four-seat model is about 20,000 lower than that of the five-seat model. "CLARITY FUEL CELL" adopts a new generation of Honda's family-style design, honeycomb-shaped air intake grille, "U"-shaped chrome trim strip connecting 10 headlights with integrated headlights, five-spoke aluminum alloy wheels highlight Its overall shape is sporty. The body size is 4895mm long, 1875mm wide and 1475mm high. The new car will be available in five-seat and four-seat models, of which the five-seat model can travel about 700km after a single hydrogen refill, and the four-seat model can travel about 650km after a single hydrogen refill. At the same time, it will also be equipped with an electric motor with a maximum output of 13 kW (177 hp) and a peak torque of 300 Nm. In terms of safety, CLARITY FUEL CELL is equipped with HONDA's latest "honda sensing" safety driving assistance system. The in-vehicle infotainment system is compatible with Apple's Apple CarPlay and the Android auto system of the Android architecture. CLARITY FUEL CELL will all be produced in Japan and sold in the form of export.

Clarity fuel cell's fuel cell vehicle

In February 2016, the UK-based Riversimple Movement released the Rasa, a small hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, which is positioned as a light, popular and economical small car, with Europe as its main target market. The Rasa is a two-seater model with a lightweight appearance, a carbon fiber body, gull-wing doors, and wheel motors. The interior style of the vehicle is also very simple. The supercapacitor located at the front of the vehicle body can recover more than 50% of the braking energy and charge the battery. The hydrogen storage tank is arranged at the rear of the vehicle body. Every 1.5kg of hydrogen fuel can make the vehicle travel 483km, with high fuel efficiency. , if converted into fossil fuels for calculation, the average fuel consumption is only equivalent to 0.9L per 100 kilometers. The Rasa adopts a lightweight design, the weight of the vehicle is controlled at 580kg, the power of the fuel cell is 8.5kW, the acceleration time from 0 to 90km/h is about 9s, and the maximum design speed is 100km/h.

Small hydrogen fuel cell vehicle Rasa