Hydrogen is the most widely distributed substance in the universe, and it constitutes 75% of the mass of the universe, so hydrogen energy is called the ultimate energy source for mankind. Water is a big "storehouse" of hydrogen. If all the hydrogen in seawater is extracted, it will be 9,000 times the heat of all fossil fuels on the earth. The combustion efficiency of hydrogen is very high. As long as 4% of hydrogen is added to gasoline, the internal combustion engine can save 40% of fuel. At present, hydrogen energy technology has entered the system implementation stage in the United States, Japan, the European Union and other countries and regions. The United States plans to reduce the use of 11 million barrels of oil per day by 2040, which is exactly the amount of oil the United States imports every day.
Hydrogen is the energy produced by the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen energy is the chemical energy of hydrogen. Hydrogen mainly occurs in the form of a combined state on the earth, and is the most widely distributed substance in the universe. It constitutes 75% of the mass of the universe. Since hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen-containing substances such as water and fossil fuels, it is a secondary energy source. There are many ways to produce hydrogen in industry, such as water electrolysis hydrogen production, coal gasification hydrogen production, heavy oil and natural gas steam catalytic conversion to hydrogen production, etc. Hydrogen energy has the following main advantages: high combustion calorific value, the heat of combustion per kilogram of hydrogen is about 3 times that of gasoline, 3.9 times that of alcohol, and 4.5 times that of coke. The product of combustion is water, the cleanest energy source in the world. Abundant resources, hydrogen can be produced from water, and water is the most abundant resource on earth. At present, hydrogen energy technology has entered the system implementation stage in the United States, Japan, the European Union and other countries and regions.
While the prospect of new energy development is bright, it also faces some confusion and challenges. For example: high cost, unstable supply form, and low comprehensive utilization efficiency. Hydrogen is harnessed through fuel cells, and many fuel cells now use hydrogen produced by reforming natural gas and other fossil fuels as fuel. Producing hydrogen from electricity from renewable sources is expensive and small. Fuel cells are also expensive, and as with any new technology, the production of fuel cells has not yet reached a basic economical scale to significantly reduce the cost per unit of production.
Therefore, during this period, a lot of basic research is needed to address key technological bottlenecks such as hydrogen production, storage and safety, as well as fuel cell operating costs and durability. Like all major transformations of basic energy by mankind, the transformation from the current fossil energy system to a hydrogen energy system requires not only mature technologies in all aspects, but also huge infrastructure construction and equipment investment, including the construction of hydrogen energy pipelines. network, storage facilities, hydrogen refueling stations, etc. In the current infrastructure construction such as urban natural gas pipelines and gas stations, compatibility with unproduced hydrogen energy should be considered, and the construction of hydrogen energy infrastructure should be included in the overall planning of national infrastructure construction and urban construction. In addition, it is necessary to speed up the construction of demonstration projects such as hydrogen-fueled public vehicles, and through public projects supported by the government, the public can gradually understand the huge changes that hydrogen energy may bring to the economy, society and life.